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Electrodeposition mechanism of nickel films on polycrystalline copper from dilute simple sulphate solutions.

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RUS

A comparison of the characteristics of planar and cylindrical magnetrons operating in pulsed DC and AC modes.

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Electrochemical properties of silver-nylon fabrics

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http://www.ortho.lsuhsc.edu/Faculty/Marino/Papers/63JElectrochemSoc1985.pdf Discusses silver ion release for infection control when title textiles are made anodic.

Layers of magnetic alloys produced by impulse plasma deposition.

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Measuring Odour Emissions: Part 4

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Describes how odour emissions can be "mapped". A circle of radius 600 m is drawn around the emission source and sampling carried out at points defined by a grid mesh superimposed on this circle. An alternative is computer simulation, noting a program AUSTAL 2000 which requires input of prevailing meteorological conditions. Part 5 and last to follow.. www.bub-umwelt.de

On the relation between growth instabilities and internal stress evolution during galvanostatic Ti thin film anodization.

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JES

Online electrolyte analysis

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Proprietary electrolyte analyser is briefly described noting its benefits when used with long production runs.

The effect of test methods on coating defects.

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Scratches in corrosion testing of coatings is discussed, it being noted that the way coatings perform at sites of damage is an important parameter used to assess the quality of the coating, and particularly, the quality of any corrosion control offered by the coating. However, the tools used to produce sample scratches in the coating, and the methods used to produce such scratches may have a significant impact on the behaviour of the coating. Most industry standards, some of which are outlined, do not take into account the effect that test methods and equipment may have on the behaviour of coatings at sites of damage.

Use of Pre-Treatments Based on Doped Silane Solutions for Improved Corrosion Resistance of Galvanised Steel Substrates.

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SURF Evaluation of the corrosion resistance of galvanised steel pre-treated with bis-[triethoxysilylpropyl]tetrasulfide silane doped with cerium nitrate or zirconium nitrate, using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, during immersion in NaCl solutions. The chemical composition of the surface was assessed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and the surface morphology was studied by atomic force microscopy. The electrochemical results show that pre-treatments based on doped silane solutions provide good corrosion protection of the galvanised steel substrates. Discusses the role of the dopants on the protective properties of the silane coatings formed on galvanised steel substrates.

"Carboxylatation" coating on zinc: A chemical conversion in organized molecular systems containing carboxylic acid.

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SURF Chemical conversion coatings on zinc surface based on hydrophobic carboxylic acid were developed and studied in this work. The long carbon chain carboxylic acid as heptanoic acid was solubilized or dispersed in different organized molecular systems (OMS) with the help of surfactant (Brij© 58, C16E20, HLB = 15.8). In a first step, the phase diagram Brij©58/HC7/water was established at 20 °C to determine the different one-phase or several phase domains, such as microemulsion, liquid crystal and emulsion. Several techniques were employed to characterize the phases and the localisation of the carboxylic acid in the OMS phase. Then the coatings, named "carboxylatation", were performed on galvanized steels in the OMS bath containing an oxidizing agent. After the degreasing and etching steps, the zinc substrate is oxidized into Zn2+ cations which precipitate in zinc carboxylate crystals. Coating morphology and composition were characterized by SEM and XRD. Then, stationary electrochemical techniques and climatic chamber tests was used to characterize the protective properties of the different coatings. The results show that the stability of the OMS is necessary to assure a good "solubilization" or dispersion of heptanoic acid in water. Nevertheless, carboxylic acid should be easily liberated from the OMS to react on the surface. In our case, the best choice is the use of a milky "pure" emulsion that is thermodynamically unstable, but sufficiently stable in time to assure a good dispersion and an easy transport and liberation of carboxylic acid on the zinc surface.

"in situ" XPS studies of laser induced surface cleaning and nitridation of Titanium

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SURF A titanium foil has been subjected to laser irradiation "in situ" in a pre-chamber of an X-ray photoemission spectrometer under different atmospheres (vacuum, Ar, O2, air, N2 and H2). As a result of these treatments, a high amount of the carbon contamination layer was removed and other changes in composition were induced. Nitridation was achieved by laser irradiation under nitrogen. The most effective treatment protocol included an initial cleaning procedure induced by irradiation in vacuum, followed by a second irradiation process performed under nitrogen. Partial nitridation is also observed when irradiating under synthetic air. Lateral and depth analysis of the nitrogen concentration around the laser spot has been also carried out. It is found that the outermost layers present a similar concentration of nitrogen. In addition, the measured nitrogen profile indicates that the amount of nitrogen within the laser spot region is relatively lower than within the immediately surrounding area. Almost no nitrogen remains in the spot area after sputtering for 30 min. A model is proposed to account for the observed titanium surface nitridation processes.

"Organic" pickling and passivation of stainless steels and new process for polishing brass

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Overview of processes offered by Messrs Poligrat where hazardous hydrofluoric acid has been replaced by unspecified organic acids. Also new process for chemical polishing and brightening of brass (BrassChem), a development of a similar process for copper (CuproChem). www.poligrat.co.uk

'A metal finisher's perspective' on industry water pollution/RCRA regulations

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Discusses impending EPA regulations, with special reference to 'total toxic organics' (TTO) limit of 0.58 ppm which is considered to be too stringent. Alternative systems of enforcement are discussed.

'Bad press'... every finishers' problem

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Text of letter to press in response to information on hazardous disposal sites.

'Black' electroless nickel coating

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