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4 stages for metallising plastics with good adhesion

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Author suggests etching is key process, forming cavities and undercuts onto which the metal can anchor. SEM's show surface of etched ABS, under-etched, optimally and over-etched. Subsequent swelling and then nucleation and formation of palladium nucleii and finally electroless metallising are treated. Photos show polyamide before & after swelling, the nucleation process is shown with schematic depiction of palladium tin nucleii lattice.

4-amino-3-substituted-5-mercapto-1,2,4-triazolines as inhibitors for the acid corrosion of steel

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SURF Corrosion inhibition by 4-amino-3-H-5-mercapto-1,2,4-triazoline and related compounds on dissolution of mild steel in H2SO4 solns. was measured using chemical and electrochemical methods. Polarization curves indicated that compounds act as mixed-type inhibitors, i.e., both cathodic and anodic curves were affected. Effect of structural changes in compounds on inhibition efficiency has been studied. Mass-loss measurements indicated that rate of corrosion of mild steel rapidly increases with temp. over range 25-60°C both in absence and in presence of inhibitors, with apparent activation energy in all instances of ca. 15 kcal mol-*1.

4-component hard coat on milling tools. Exploring the options

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Optimum machine tool coatings depend on a range of factors such as adhesion, oxidation resistance at elevated temperatures, wear resistance. A review of previous candidate PVD coatings includes titanium nitride, carbonitride & aluminonitride. A new arc-based process allows 4-component TiAlCN deposits to be formed, the advantages of which are described.

40 years of surface finishing with JOT (Pt 2)

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Journal continues with photos & comment on highlights & past history, photos of personalities.

40th William Blum Lecture. Faraday's childern (and nickel)

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Very briefly treats electroplating history of nickel prior to ca 1920's and discusses development of wrought Ni anodes. Polarisation plots show anodic behaviour of pure Ni, and its use in titanium anode baskets is noted. Introduction of sulphur Ni is described in terms of the dissolution chemistry on this. Plot shows anodic dissolution curves for a range of Ni types. More recent history of Ni plating (and its link with chromium plating and the vicissitudes of fashion) are followed. Ni electroforming & fabrication are detailed, and electrodep'n of Ni-based alloys with cobalt, copper, compositionally modulated, with iron, manganese, molybdenum & tungsten, palladium, phosphorus, tin, zinc are all briefly discussed. Some statistics for Ni consumption are offered. Brief notes on some of the best known personalia, from Faraday on, are set out. 32 refs

40th William Blum Lecture. Faraday's childern (and nickel)

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Very briefly treats electroplating history of nickel prior to ca 1920's and discusses development of wrought Ni anodes. Polarisation plots show anodic behaviour of pure Ni, and its use in titanium anode baskets is noted. Introduction of sulphur Ni is described in terms of the dissolution chemistry on this. Plot shows anodic dissolution curves for a range of Ni types. More recent history of Ni plating (and its link with chromium plating and the vicissitudes of fashion) are followed. Ni electroforming & fabrication are detailed, and electrodep'n of Ni-based alloys with cobalt, copper, compositionally modulated, with iron, manganese, molybdenum & tungsten, palladium, phosphorus, tin, zinc are all briefly discussed. Some statistics for Ni consumption are offered. Brief notes on some of the best known personalia, from Faraday on, are set out. 32 refs

40th William Blum Lecture. Faraday's children (and nickel)

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Very briefly treats electroplating history of nickel prior to ca 1920's and discusses development of wrought Ni anodes. Polarisation plots show anodic behaviour of pure Ni, and its use in titanium anode baskets is noted. Introduction of sulphur Ni is described in terms of the dissolution chemistry on this. Plot shows anodic dissolution curves for a range of Ni types. More recent history of Ni plating (and its link with chromium plating and the vicissitudes of fashion) are followed. Ni electroforming & fabrication are detailed, and electrodep'n of Ni-based alloys with cobalt, copper, compositionally modulated, with iron, manganese, molybdenum & tungsten, palladium, phosphorus, tin, zinc are all briefly discussed. Some statistics for Ni consumption are offered. Brief notes on some of the best known personalia, from Faraday on, are set out. 32 refs

41st William Blum Lecture - Mathematical modelling of electrodeposition

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Focus on current density modelling & distribution, using proprietary software packages, FEMLAB Finite Element system and MATLAB, to model, for example electrodeposition of binary alloys in a Hull cell. Graphs & colour contour maps show results, incl. also potential distribution in a bearing cell around cylindrical anode. 19 refs

430 "rolled-on" - a less expensive alternative to nickel-containing stainless steel

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Substitute for high-cost austenitic stainless steels is title product, which is a cladding of ferritic grade 430 steel. Table lists chemical composition of cladding (18/8 approx) and substrate steel. Phase diagram is shown, graphs & table show prices & costs. Comments on corrosion resistance, photos show manufacture & use in elevator construction.

448-452

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SFEN The cytocompatibility and haemocompatibility of three zirconium based films, i.e. Zr, ZrC and ZrCN, deposited on NiTi shape memory alloy by magnetron sputtering are investigated and compared to those of electropolished NiTi shape memory alloy. The Zr(C,N) series films have deteriorated wettability but have positive effects on the blood compatibility and cytocompatibility of NiTi. Better haemolysis resistance and thromboresistant properties are observed. There are more living cells on the Zr(C,N) series films, and the cells show a higher relative growth rate value than those on the electropolished NiTi. The Zr(C,N) series films act as barrier layers and promote the proliferation of fibroblasts by blocking the leaching of toxic nickel ions from NiTi.

44th William Blum Lecture. Electrodeposition of alloys & composites with superior corrosion & electrocatalytic properties

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Wide survey incl. special effects of underpotential deposited monolayers (UPD) of zinc & other metals on hydrogen permeation & corrosion & nanostructured Zn layers with special properties. Development of amorphous nickel-zinc-phosphorus alloy coatings. Graph shows rate of anodic oxidation of hypophosphite on various metals. Corrosion of Zn-nickel-X where X = phosphorus or cadmium & mechanical properties of deposit. Pulse-plating of nano-sized platinum . Linear polarisation data for zinc, zinc-nickel,, cadmium, Zn-Ni-Cd and electroless nickel-Zn-P. Nyquist plots for the same species. Table lists adhesion, taber wear index & microhardness of these. Effects of pulse plating with graph showing limiting current density as function of duty ratio. Graph shows performance of Pt-carbon plated MEA (membrane anode assembly). 90 refs

45 years for the Technical University at Ilmenau (Germany)

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Focus on one of Germany's best-known centres of metal finishing training & education, its history and current activities.

45th William Blum Lecture: AESF Research Projects& Related Results

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An extensive biography of the author, the Wm Blum medallist is given. Research topics reviewed incl. theory & practice of hydrogen embrittlement in metals and its study. Next, IR voltage & H absorption in crevice corrosion. Model cell is shown & polarisation data plotted. Diffusion & recrystallisation in palladium, nickel & gold overplates, esp. in context of solid sate diffusion & corrosion failures in electronic components. Table lists data for copper solid state diffusion as penetration depth into various metals at 100 & 175°C. Graph for copper with electroplated gold shows diffusion constant vs. temperature. Project on electroplated zinc nickel alloys for automotive use. Corrosion studies & recrystallisation after annealing are reported. Development of environmentally-friendly tin-zinc electroplated alloys. SEM's of Sn-Zn surfaces, polarisation plots & equivalent circuit for corrosion are shown. 72 refs

4th Goema Environmental Symposium

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Major German mfr of environmental equipment sponsored this where topics incl. future developments in water & effluent technologies, compliance with German recycling & closed-loop environmental legislation; new approaches to recycling using membrane technologies, lowering costs of disposal & recycling plants. (Notes on p. 1667 show water prices around the world. Germany has highest prices).

4th International Conference on Fundamentals and Applications of HIPIMS and Final Event of COST Action MP0804 “Highly Ionized Pulse Plasma Processes — HIPP Processes”, 12–13.6.2013, Braunschweig, Germany.

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