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A controlled scratch test for measuring the elastic property, yield stress and contact stress-strain relationship of a surface

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SURF In controlled scratch test to measure elastic property, yield stress and contact stress-strain relationship of surface hard sphere scratches surface at progressively increasing load. Contact deformation is firstly elastic and then elastic-plastic. Contact width between sphere and surface is measured and relationship between contact pressure and scratch strain is obtained. Elastic property and yield stress of surface then derived from curve. Strain hardening ability of surface can also be estimated. Method is valuable for thick coatings and brittle materials in which these properties are difficult to obtain.

A conversion layer based on trivalent chromium and cobalt for the corrosion protection of electrogalvanized steel.

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SURF The corrosion resistance of pure zinc coatings can be improved through the application of suitable chemical passivation treatments. Hexavalent chromium (Cr6 +) compounds have widely been used to formulate conversion layers providing better anticorrosive protection as well as anchorage properties to painting systems. However, taking into account that they are produced using hazardous chemical compounds, the development of alternative and “green” technologies with equivalent protective performance is a paramount purpose of many R&D laboratories working around the world. In the present paper, the corrosion behavior of industrially electrogalvanized steel subjected to a Cr3 + + Co2 +-based passivation treatment was studied. The experimental work involved electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements and polarization curves in a 0.1 mol/L Na2SO4 solution, surface microstructural and morphological characterization by electronic microscopy as well as chemical analysis by EDXS and XPS. The most commonly observed failures on the Cr6 + treated samples were attributed to microstructural features of the substrate that were not adequately healed by the Cr6 + passivation treatment.

A cooking canteen with non-sticky metallic coating and the preparing process thereof.

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Cooking utensil coated with a metallic non-stick coating made of a nickel-aluminum-molybdenum (NiAlMo) alloy mainly composed of nickel aluminum (NiAl), and/or a nickel-chromium-chromic carbide (NiCr-Cr3C2) alloy mainly composed of chromic carbide (Cr3C2). A method for coating a cooking utensil with a metallic non-stick coating is also provided. The metallic non-stick coating of the invention possesses high impact, heat and abrasion resistances.

A cooking canteen with non-sticky metallic coating and the preparing process thereof.

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Cooking utensil coated with a metallic non-stick coating made of a nickel-aluminum-molybdenum (NiAlMo) alloy mainly composed of nickel aluminum (NiAl), and/or a nickel-chromium-chromic carbide (NiCr-Cr 3 C 2 ) alloy mainly composed of chromic carbide (Cr 3 C 2 ). A method for coating a cooking utensil with a metallic non-stick coating is also provided. This metallic non-stick coating has high impact, heat and abrasion resistances.

A cooperative investigation of alternative water analysis methods. Results of an evaluation of heavy metal parameters

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A cooperative investigation of alternative water analysis methods. Results of an evaluation of heavy metal parameters

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A corrosion resistance study of manganese phosphate conversion film on AM 60 magnesium alloy.

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A chemical conversion film with good corrosion resistance was obtained on the surface of AM60 magnesium alloy in manganese phosphate bath, to which an accelerant was added. The corrosion behavior of the film in 3.5% NaCl was investigated by electrochemical methods. The dynamic potential polarization curve tests show that the self-corrosion potential of the film shifts positively in large range and the corrosion current density decreased obviously comparing with that of the alloy substrate, however, the passivation potential extent in anodic branch of the polarization curve is not distinct. electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurement illustrates that the culvature radius of capacitive impedance arc in high frequency is increased significantly comparing with that of the alloy substrate. SEM observation indicates that the film is presented in crystal form and the crystal grains are arranged compactly with no obvious cracks. EDX analysis illustrates that the film surface is composed of oxygen and phosphor as well as manganese.

A corrosion resistant object having an outer layer of a ceramic material.

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An object comprising an electrically conductive body part, e.g. comprising copper or silver, and a layer comprising a refractory metal, preferably tantalum. At least part of the refractory metal layer has been transformed into an electrically conductive ceramic material, preferably a tantalum boride. The refractory metal layer improves the corrosion resistant properties of the object and the ceramic material prevents oxidation of the refractory metal layer, and thereby passivation of the object during conduction of a current. The object is suitable for use as an electrode in corrosive environments. The object is cost effective because passivation can be avoided without applying a layer of precious metal. Also a method of forming the object in which the ceramic material is preferably provided by applying boride in a gaseous or solid phase and heating the object.

A corrosion study of hot-dip galvanized steel sheet pre-treated with gamma(p)-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane.

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A cost-effective method to create physically and thermally stable and storable super-hydrophobic aluminum alloy surfaces.

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SURF Physical stability and thermal stability of super-hydrophobic surfaces are some of the most significant issues for applying them in industry. A facile and cost-effective method has been developed to create thermally and physically stable and storable super-hydrophobic aluminum alloy surfaces. Chemical etching by sodium hydroxide and a solution of acetic acid and hydrochloric acid were used to create micro-nano structures over the surface and subsequently trichloro(octadecyl)silane (TCODS), trichlorododecylsilane (TCDS), and trichloro(octyl)silane (TCOS) were used to modify these roughened surfaces. The effects of different etching processes, different type of chlorosilanes, and the amount of modifiers on the resultant aluminum alloy surfaces hydrophobicity were also investigated. The resulting surface morphologies, compositions, roughness, and water contact angle were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), 3D surface profilometer, and water contact angle (WCA) meter, respectively. Photron APX-RS high speed camera was used for imaging contact angle hysteresis (CAH) and dynamic droplet/surface interaction. The WCA and water contact angle hysteresis (CAH) of the aluminum alloy surfaces modified by TCODS reached to 165° and less than 3°, respectively; and it remained super-hydrophobic after 100 h immersing in water, 30 min ultra-sonication, stored for more than 30 days under ambient condition, and heated to 375 °C for 20 min.

A cost-effective process for large-scale production of submicron SiC by combustion synthesis

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MCP

A cost-effective process for large-scale production of submicron silicon carbide by combustion synthesis

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MCP A cost-effective process was developed for large-scale production of submicron SiC by combustion synthesis. Large and thin reactant samples (120 x 120 x 6 mm*3) were prepared from ground reactant powders of silicon and carbon black. Inorder to reduce the cost of the expensive silicon powders, different particle sizes were used. Prior to the cold press of the reactant sample, a small amount of PVA (polyvinyl alcohol) slurry, which served as a binder, was added into the mixed reactant powders. The reactant samples were combusted by a custom-built oxy-acetylene torch in air. The averaged reaction yield throughout the product was about 94%. If the molar ratio between carbon black and silicon was increased from 1 to 1.1, the averaged yield raised to about 97%. Further increase of the molar ratio did not raise the yield. The product consisted of beta-SiC with a trace of alpha-SiC. The grain size of SiC was around 0.2 µm and the morphology showed that SiC particles were aggregated. In some cases, the aggregated SiC particles were sintered together. Particle size distribution of SiC powders before and after grinding were both narrow. The averaged particle size of both SiC powders were approximately 0.25 µm. Using different particle sizes of starting silicon powders all resulted in the similar combustion results. The questions, why submicron SiC powders were produced and why starting particle sizes of silicon powders did not change the combustion products are discussed. Further reductions of process cost and proposals of continuous production lines are also addressed.

A coulometric readout for pulse plating

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Use of coulometric readout system for pulse plating is described based on digital counters with resettable batch countdown to zero, activating red pilot light and stopping current; as well as resettable totalizing counter.

A Coulometric Stripping Method for Measuring Plating Efficiency

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A rotating disc electrode is used and a metal is deposited for a given time while the deposition charge is meas'd with a coulometer. The sample is then removed and placed in a different stripping solution. The charge required to strip the deposit ismeas'd and comparison of the two charge figures allow deposition efficiency to be meas'd.

A countermeasure of polluted soil of plating factory.

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