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A Co-operative Effort in Meeting Pollution Control Targets

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Role of management & self-help in meeting environmental legislation based on the Eaton Co in Milwaukee USA.

A coating for metallurgical surfaces.

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A coating improving oxidation resistance of silicon nitride ceramics

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A silica coating was prepared on a hot-pressed Si3N4 ceramic substrate by the sol gel method. The coating decreased the weight gain due to oxidation at 1300°C for 100 hours from 0.42 mg/sq.cm to 0.28 mg/sq.cm.

A coating thickness uniformity model for physical vapour deposition systems: further analysis and development

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SURF Coating thickness uniformity model, for PVD in low-pressure gas, is developed further. Expression for front-face fall-off in coating thickness with source-to-substrate distance, s, is verified; expression isolates influence of progressive dilution of vapour flux that would occur in vacuum ( function) from gas scattering effects. function approximates to inverse square law with s, although level of approximation depends on emission characteristics of vapour source and associated virtual source effects. Knowledge of function allows original model for R to be extended and expressions for following source-substrate configurations are presented: (1) thin substrate at angle to vapour source, (2) thick substrate, and (3) 2 vapour sources at different values of s.

A coating thickness uniformity model for physical vapour deposition systems: overview

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SURF Coating thickness uniformity model, for PVD in low-pressure gas, is described. Model is derived from consideration of proportions of non- thermalised and thermalised vapour fluxes arriving at front and back surfaces of thin flat substrates. R = coth(s/21), (R is front-to-back coating thickness ratio, s is source-to-substrate distance, and l is associated with mean free path for vapour thermalisation). Work, performed to test validity of model under various deposition conditions, is updated. Model can be applied to PVD by thermal evaporation (using resistive or electron beam heating), and to plasma-based systems which employ magnetron sputtering or cathodic arc evaporation sources, or which operate under ion plating conditions. Data from model can be used for predictive purposes or to provide information on phenomena such as vapour particle thermalisation and virtual source effects.

A cobalt-based surface activator for electroless copper deposition.

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SURF The activation of the dielectric surface by the colloidal solution of cobalt compounds was examined as a palladium-free activation process. The principle of the process is based on the deposition of a Co-based precursor film on the substrate surface to be metalized and on the reduction of the adsorbed cobalt particles. The reduction of the adsorbed cobalt oxy/hydroxy compounds was carried out by dipping the treated surface in an alkaline solution of borohydride both at room and elevated temperatures. It has been determined that the presence of a small amount of Cu2 + ions in the colloidal solution of cobalt compounds catalyzes the reduction of adsorbed Co-based precursor on the dielectric surface. Furthermore, the formed Co(0) seeds initiate electroless copper deposition. A continuous copper film was deposited on a glass sheet after its activation in a colloidal solution of cobalt compounds containing Cu2 + ions in contrast to that activated in the same solution without Cu2 + ions.

A Coil Coater Looks At Pretreatment

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A Coil-Coater looks at pretreatment

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Overview of cleaning & degreasing & operating conditions. 11 refs

A Colorful Approach to Decorative Plating

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A combinatorial comparison of DC and high power impulse magnetron sputtered Cr2AlC.

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A combinatorial X-ray sub-micron diffraction study of microstructure, residual stress and phase stability in TiAlN coatings.

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A combined composition and morphology study of electrodeposited Zn-Co and Zn-Co-Fe alloy coatings.

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SURF The composition and morphology of electrodeposited Zn-Co and Zn-Co-Fe alloy coatings are studied by a variety of complementary analytical techniques. Morphology of the alloy deposits is shown to change significantly with Co content in the alloy coating. An increase in the Co content in the range of 0.7-9 wt.% Co in Zn-Co and Zn-Co-Fe alloys results in a change in grain shape from angular to nodular and a further increase up to 10 wt.% Co corresponds to a characteristic growth mode. In the range of 10-29 wt.% of Co, the deposit contains two types of grains, i.e. one with low Co content (5-7 wt.%) and another with higher Co content (i.e. 15-35 wt.%). Zn-Co and Zn-Co-Fe alloys with Co contents of or higher than 32 wt.% Co show a homogeneous structure, which can be considered to be nanocrystalline in nature. The presence of two or more phases is not desired in terms of enhanced local corrosion by (micro-)galvanic coupling of phases while the single phase or nanocrystalline coatings provide good corrosion protection properties.

A compact ellipsoidal cavity type microwave plasma reactor for diamond film deposition.

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DIAM Electric field distribution in ellipsoidal microwave cavities with different sizes was modeled by the finite difference time-domain method (FDTD). The influence of varying size on the performance of the ellipsoidal cavities was studied. Through the simulations, eight series of resonant patterns were found. Based on this simulation result, a compact ellipsoidal cavity type microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition reactor has been proposed and its performance was predicted. It is shown that such a compact ellipsoidal cavity type reactor retains the same ability to concentrate microwave energy into its focus, facilitating both production of high density plasmas and deposition of diamond films.

A comparative assessment of three approaches for ranking the adhesion of titanium nitride coatings onto two steels

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3 testing procedures: flexure, micro-indentation and scratch tests, have been used to compare adhesion ranking of titanium nitride films on 2 steels. Prior to deposition of titanium nitride film interface was modified to achieve notionally good and bad adhesion. Observations with each technique provide basis for ranking although order of ranking changed with different tests. Flexure test is most reliable means for evaluation of adhesion and displays less influence to film thickness than contact related tests.

A comparative investigation of oxide formation on EQ (Equilibrium) and NiCoCrAlY bond coats under stepped thermal cycling.

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