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A comparative investigation of the corrosion behavior of RuO2-IrO2-TiO2 coated titanium anodes in chloride solutions.

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JES

A comparative kinetic study of commercial photoinitiators for UV/visible curable acrylate clear coatings

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A selection of the most important commercial photoinitiators was analysed by different curing methods in acrylated resins and the data related to their spectroscopic properties. Real time infrared spectroscopy and pendulum hardness were used to assess the curing behaviour of type I and type II photoinitiators in the presence and absence of atmospheric oxygen. Type I photoinitiators of the acylphospine oxide and the alpha-aminoalkylphenone variety were found to be the most effective systems in clear coatings. Also a range of reactive diluents was studied and their reactivity in the presence of air and hardness related to their functionality and chemical structure.

A comparative research on auxiliary processes for copper based carbon nanotube composite electroplating.

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Composite electrodeposition of carbon nanotubes and copper is an excellent process for preparing field emission cathode. Based on copper based carbon nanotube composite electroplating technology, the effects of different auxiliary electroplating processes (including mechanical agitation, air agitation, cathode movement, ultrasonic oscillation, intermittent ultrasonic oscillation) on the quality of the composite coating were compared and investigated. When mechanical auxiliary processes were used, the bath vibration was small, leading to more carbon nanotubes on the coating, but also with many agglomerations; when ultrasonic auxiliary processes were used, the bath vibration was bigger, resulting in less carbon nanotubes on the coating, almost with no agglomeration. The two kinds of auxiliary processes should be used in combination to control a more appropriate time of intermittent oscillation, which is the key for obtaining a composite coating with more highly dispersed carbon nanotubes.

A comparative study of concentration effect of complexing agent on the properties of spray deposited Sb2S3 thin films and precipitated powders

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MCP

A comparative study of corrosion performance of sealed anodized layers of conventionally colored and interference-colored aluminium.

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SURF The nanostructure of aluminium anodized layer was modified in phosphoric acid to induce light-interference colors through electrocoloring using nickel pigments. After a mixed sealing procedure, the corrosion performance of the interference-colored anodized layer was evaluated using Tafel polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The results were compared with those obtained for conventionally colored anodized layer. The modification made the mixed sealing of subsequent colored layer less effective. The steam-sealing was found to be more effective for sealing the interference-colored anodized layer. For effectively sealed layers, the porous layer plays an additional role besides the barrier layer in determining the corrosion performance.

A comparative study of CrN, ZrN, NbN and TaN layers as cobalt diffusion barriers for CVD diamond deposition on WC-Co tools.

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A Comparative Study of Cu-Co Alloys versus Cu/Co Multilayered Coatings Obtained by Electrodeposition Techniques.

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JES

A comparative study of electrodeposition techniques on the microstructure and property of nanocrystalline cobalt deposit.

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MCP Nanocrystalline Cobalt (Co) deposits with different microstructures are produced by direct current (DC), unipolar pulse, reverse pulse, and bipolar pulse electrodeposition processes. The microstructural characteristics of the resulting deposits, including average grain size, phase structure, surface roughness and morphology, are greatly affected by the electrodeposition techniques used. The hardness, friction and wear behaviors, and the electrochemical corrosion properties of the deposit are strongly dependent on the microstructural characteristics. The bipolar pulse electrodeposition produces nanocrystalline Co deposit that is featured by small grain size and low surface roughness, and consequently the highest hardness and resistances to wear and corrosion. The nanocrystalline Co deposit produced by the reverse pulse electrodeposition exhibits the smallest grain size and highest hardness but the lowest wear resistance attributable to its rough surface and indistinctive hcp (100) and (110) textures. DC plating has produced Co deposit with the largest grain size, the lowest hardness and corrosion resistance, and a relatively low wear resistance. The electrodeposition mechanisms involved in these processes are explained and related to the microstructures, properties and wear mechanisms of the resulting nanocrystalline Co deposits.

A comparative study of electroluminescence from nanosize silicon particle embedded silicon oxide films and that from nanosize germanium particle embedded silicon oxide films

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A Comparative Study of Electroplated Palladium as a Contact Finish

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A comparative study of molybdate/silane composite films on galvanized steel with different treatment processes.

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SURF Two types of molybdate/silane composite films were obtained on the surface of hot-dip galvanized steel sheets by either directly immersing in a solution containing silane and molybdate as additive (single-step process), or firstly immersing in a molybdate solution, then in a silane solution (two-step process). The chemical compositions and microstructures of the films were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and reflection absorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIR). The corrosion resistances were investigated by electrochemical measurements and neutral salt spray (NSS) test. The results showed that the molybdate/silane composite film formed in the single-step process had a similar double-layer structure as that obtained in the two-step process. The inner layer was composed mainly of the elements O, Mo, Zn, and P, similar to the single molybdate film; whereas the outer layer was composed mainly of the elements C, O and Si, similar to the single silane film. Compared with the single molybdate or silane film, the corrosion current of the composite films was reduced and the impedance of the films was increased. Accordingly, the corrosion resistance of the composite films was remarkably enhanced to a level which was comparable to or even surpassing that of the conventional chromate passivation film.

A comparative study of spin-on and chemical vapour deposited Teflon amorphous fluoropolymer thin films

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JES Dielectric materials with dielectric constant (K) less than conventionally used silica (K = 3.0) are gaining importance particularly for low voltage operated IC's due to ability to reduce signal propagation delays, power dissipation, and cross talk when used as interconnect dielectrics. Reports low temp. CVD technique for deposition of copolymeric Teflon amorphous fluoropolymer 1600 which is new low K material with value of K of c. 1.93. Principle of direct liquid injection in UV light-assisted rapid isothermal processing system was followed. Film properties for films processed using new technique and conventional spin-on method were compared. Significant improvement in dielectric performance and material usage efficiency was observed for films processed using CVD.

A comparative study of sputtered TaC(x)and WC(x) films as diffusion barriers between Cu and Si

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Barrier properties of sputter-deposited TaC(x) and WC(x) for Cu metallization were compared. Incorporation of C atom is effective in decorating local defects of barrier layer and improving thermal stability of Cu/barrier/Si contact system. Owing to higher m.pt. and better chemical inertness, with respect to Si substrate, TaC(x) (600 ) film shows better thermal stability (up to 650°C) than that of WC(x) (~ 600°C) film, while highest stable temp. as evaluated by n+p-diode leakage measurement is c. 550°C for TaC(x) and 500°C for WC(x) barrier layer. Failure of TaC(x) and WC(x) barriers is mainly due to Cu diffusion through localized defects of barrier layers into Si substrate. Interfacial reaction between WC(x) layer and Si substrate plays role in failure of WC(x) film.

A comparative study of the corrosion protective properties of chromium and chromium free passivation methods.

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SURF Commercially available passivation methods for white-rust protection of hot-dip galvanized steel have been investigated. The passivations were either based on trivalent chromium or chromium free. A chromate based conversion coating was used for reference. The treated panels were tested with regard to white rust protection and paintability. The surface chemistry of the conversion coatings was monitored with scanning Auger electron spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Coating thicknesses were measured using Auger electron sputter depth profiling.

A comparative study of the cyclic thermal oxidation of PVD nickel aluminide coatings

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SURF Static components used in the hot sections of gas turbines increasingly have a thermal barrier coating (TBC) of partially yttria-stabilized zirconia (PYSZ) routinely applied to improve their high temperature properties. Developments are also in progress to make TBCs better suited for use on rotating components such as blades. To help protect against high temperature oxidation of such components, an intermediate bond coat is applied, typically of an MCrAlY-type metal alloy. An alternative bond coat material is nickel-aluminum intermetallic alloy. Various processing routes have been studied for both bond coat and TBC deposition. A potentially attractive processing route is to deposit both bond coat and TBC by a physical vapor deposition (PVD) method; this would have the advantage of permitting sequential deposition in the same coating cycle. Whilst much research as been carried out on PVD MCrAlY and PYSZ coatings, relatively little work has been carried out on PVD NiAl, deposition by three ion-assisted PVD coating routes: arc, electron-beam, and sputter ion plating. Coatings were deposited on a nickel-based alloy (Inconel 600) and an AISI 304 stainless steel. The differences in microstructure and phase composition from each deposition method are reported, together with data on the cyclic oxidation performance. The influence of process parameters on coating characteristics and degradation mechanisms is discussed.