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A comparative study on the roles of velocity in the material removal rate during chemical mechanical polishing

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JES Relative velocities between flowing slurry and selected points on 150 mm wafer and nonuniformity of velocity are calculated given known carrier speed, platen speed, and pad-to-wafer distance. Combination of high pad rpm, medium wafer rpm, and large pad-to-wafer distance should give rise to minimum nonuniformity of velocity. CMP removal rates data are fitted to original Preston equation, Tseng's model, and a modified Preston equation which incorporates deterioration characteristics of abrasives into removal rate model.

A comparative study on Ti(1 - x)Al(x)N coatings reactively sputtered from compound and from mosaic targets.

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A comparative study on titania layers formed on Ti, Ti-6Al-4V and NiTi shape memory alloy through a low temperature oxidation process.

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SURF For improving the bioactivity and biocompatibility of metals for medical applications, anatase titania layers were synthesized on Ti, Ti-6Al-4V and NiTi shape memory alloy (SMA) using the H2O2-oxidation and hot water aging treatment method at 80 °C. The thickness of the titania layers on Ti, Ti-6Al-4V and NiTi SMA was 7.43 ñ 0.93 µm, 3.14 ñ 0.38 µm and 4.04 ñ 0.25 µm, respectively. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopic (TEM) analysis indicated that the titania layers formed were poorly crystalline anatase. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) suggested that abundant Ti-OH functional groups were produced on titania, which could improve bioactivity of the metals. In addition, the titania layer formed on Ti substrate was shown to contain more molecularly chemisorbed water and Ti-OH functional groups than those on Ti-6Al-4V and NiTi SMA. Atomic force microscopic (AFM) results showed that the surface roughness values of metal samples depended on the scanning size and that surface roughness of samples significantly increased after the H2O2-oxidation and hot water aging treatment for all three metals. Compared to Ti-6Al-4V and NiTi SMA, the H2O2-treated and aged Ti samples exhibited the roughest surface. The wettability of samples was evaluated through water contact angle measurements. After the H2O2-oxidation treatment, the three metals exhibited high hydrophilicity. The bonding strength of titania layers on Ti, Ti-6Al-4V and NiTi was also investigated. Potentiodynamic polarization tests indicated that the corrosion resistance of H2O2-treated and aged Ti, Ti-6Al-4V and NiTi SMA was significantly improved due to the titania layer formation.

A comparative study: The effect of surface treatments on the tribological properties of Ti-6Al-4V alloy.

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SURF The effect of different surface treatments on the wear resistance of Ti-6Al-4V alloy has been investigated. For this purpose, plasma nitriding treatment was performed in a gas mixture 75% N2-25% Ar, for 1 h treatment time and at 750 °C. The thin films were deposited using CFUMBS technique. The results showed that more surface roughness was obtained for nitrided specimens compared with thin film deposited specimens. It was also observed that both surface treatments improved the wear resistance of Ti-6Al-4V alloy. It was determined that plasma nitrided specimens exhibited excellent wear resistance compared with thin film deposited ones when applied load increased. Similar results were obtained from surface hardness measurements, and it was observed that load bearing capacity increased after plasma nitriding. The corrosion resistance of both surface treatments showed similar properties.

A comparison between fine-grained and nanocrystalline electrodeposited copper-nickel films. Insights on mechanical and corrosion performance.

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SURF Cu(1 - x)-Ni(x) (0.43 = x = 1.0) films were electrodeposited from citrate-sulphate baths at different current densities onto Cu/Ti/Si (100) substrates with the addition of saccharine as a grain-refining agent. The Cu-Ni alloy films produced from saccharine-free baths were fine-grained (crystallite size of ~ 400 nm). The addition of saccharine to the electrolytic solution induced a dramatic decrease in crystal size (down to ~ 27 nm) along with a reduction in surface roughness. Although the effect of saccharine on pure Ni films was less obvious, significant changes were observed due to the presence of saccharine in the bath during the alloying of Cu with Ni. Compared to fine-grained Cu-Ni films, the nanocrystalline films exhibited lower microstrains and a larger amount of stacking faults as observed by X-ray diffraction. These features enhance the mechanical properties of the Cu-Ni alloys, making the nanocrystalline Cu-Ni films superior to both the corresponding fine-grained films and pure Ni films. In particular, hardness in fine-grained films varied from 4.2 (x = 0.43) to 5.4 GPa (x = 0.86), whereas hardness varied between 6.7 and 8.2 GPa for nanocrystalline films of similar composition. In addition, wear resistance and elastic recovery were enhanced. Nanostructuring did not significantly affect corrosion resistance of Cu-Ni alloys in chloride media. Although the corrosion potential shifted slightly towards more negative values, the corrosion current density decreased, thereby making the electrodeposition nanostructuring process an effective tool to improve the overall properties of the Cu-Ni system.

A comparison between the corrosion behavior of nanostructured copper thin films deposited on oxidized silicon and copper sheet in alkaline media.

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A comparison between the corrosion resistances of some HVOF-sprayed metal alloy coatings.

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SURF This study compares the corrosion resistance of one Co-based alloy coating, namely Co-28Mo-17Cr-3Si (similar to Tribaloy-800), four Ni-based alloy coatings, namely Ni-17Cr-4Fe-4Si-3.5B-1C (Diamalloy-2001), Ni-20Cr-10W-9Mo-4Cu-1C-1B-1Fe (Diamalloy-4006), Ni-22Cr-9Mo-4Nb-5Fe (similar to Inconel-625), Ni-32Mo-16Cr-3Si-2Co (similar to Tribaloy-700), and a (WC-12Co)-33Ni-9Cr-3.5Fe-2Si-2B-0.5C cermet-Ni alloy blend coating. They were produced by liquid-fuelled HVOF spraying onto AISI1040 steel plates. Electrolytic hard chromium (EHC) plating was characterised as a reference material, to verify whether some HVOF coatings are suitable as an EHC replacement. The microstructure of the coatings was examined by SEM and XRD. Electrochemical polarization tests and free corrosion tests were performed in 0.1 M HCl aqueous solution; the corrodkote test (ASTM B380-97R02) was also performed, to rank coatings qualitatively. The lowest corrosion current densities (Icorr) were recorded for EHC and Tribaloy-700. The latter coating contained few secondary phases and little porosity; the damage was mainly due to corrosion activation along lamellae boundaries. Diamalloy-2001 exhibited the highest Icorr and was significantly damaged after the polarization test, as its multi-phase microstructure had triggered severe galvanic corrosion. During free corrosion in 0.1 M HCl, Tribaloy-700 and Diamalloy-4006 retained rather stable polarization resistance (Rp), whereas the Rp of EHC decreased significantly. Tribaloy-700 survived 40 h of corrodkote test with no apparent damage and EHC underwent limited pitting corrosion. All other coatings had visible corrosion. The Inconel-625 coating failed to protect the substrate after 20 h of testing, due to inadequate processing conditions.

A comparison in performance of diamond coated cemented carbide cutting tools with and without a boride interlayer

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SURF Instead of depleting cobalt from the surface of cemented carbide substrates or introducing a cobalt-free interlayer between the substrates and diamond coating, a boride interlayer could be employed to modify the catalytic characteristics of cobalt in the substrate surface, preventing cobalt from interfering with the deposition of diamond coatings. This paper compares deposition of diamond coatings and performance of diamond coated cemented carbide cutting tools, with and without such a borided interlayer. A profound effect of using the interlayer is that it allows the deposition of adherent diamond coatings within a relatively broad temperature range, which improves reproducibility of the coating processes. With the interlayer present, an increase in tool life of 20-fold has been obtained, in comparison with that of uncoated tools. Such an increase in tool life can be attributed to the improved adhesion of the diamond coatings.

A comparison in performance of diamond coated cemented carbide cutting tools with and without a boride interlayer

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SURF Instead of depleting cobalt from the surface of cemented carbide substrates or introducing a cobalt-free interlayer between the substrates and diamond coating, a boride interlayer could be employed to modify the catalytic characteristics of cobalt in the substrate surface, preventing cobalt from interfering with the deposition of diamond coatings. Deposition of diamond coatings and performance of diamond coated cemented carbide cutting tools, with and without such a boride interlayer are compared..It is shown that a profound effect of using the interlayer is that it allows the deposition of adherent diamond coatings within a relatively broad temperature range, which improves reproducibility of the coating processes. With the interlayer present, an increase in tool life of 20-fold has been obtained, in comparison with that of uncoated tools. Such an increase in tool life can be attributed to the improved adhesion of the diamond coatings.

A comparison of accelerated tests for steel bridge coatings in marine environments

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A variety of low-VOC, high solids and waterborne coating systems were evaluated using a cyclic hot salt-plus-pollutant (ammonium sulphate) fog/cold acid test was employed in conjunction with freeze and UV-condensation to simulate a severe marine environment. The test results were compared with results from conventional salt fog and and cyclic salt fog exposure tests. The results of a 28 month outdoor accelerated salt exposure trial were used to determine which of the accelerated laboratory test methods was the most reliable for predicting performance in a real situation.

A comparison of atomic layers formed by electrodeposition of selenium and tellurium. Scanning tunnelling microscopy studies on Au(100) and Au(111)

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JES Structures formed by electrodeposition of atomic layers of chalcogenides Se and Te, on Au(100) and Au(111), are compared. Each element, on each surface, forms low coverage structure, consisting of atoms packed simply in high co-ordinate sites at distances just above van der Waals diam. As coverages increase above this level, structures composed of chalcogenide atom chains or rings are formed. Chains or rings have significant molecular character, involving orbital overlap of adjacent chalcogenide atoms. Discusses appearance of triangular phase boundaries for both chalcogenides on Au(111). In case of Se, isolated triangles, c. 4-6 nm on side are distributed across the surface, whereas a network of triangular phase boundaries is observed in the deposition of Te. The triangular phase boundaries in Se appear to result from nucleation of domains in different threefold sites on Au(111). For Te, triangular domains and phase boundaries are result of Te atoms being too large to form extended structure.

A comparison of chemical and atmospheric plasma assisted copper plating on carbon fiber reinforced epoxy polymer surfaces.

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SURF A comparison of two different surface pre-treatments and their influence on a subsequent surface metallization were studied. Standard electroless copper deposition involving initial etching in mild acid is thoroughly compared with the process where plasma pre-treatment replaced the mild acid etch. Specific surface co-planar type of dielectric barrier discharge was employed to provide a technologically feasible plasma pre-treatment of composites of carbon reinforced epoxy polymers. Results demonstrated both approaches being able to achieve excellent adhesion of final coating. In contrast to standard chemical pre-treatment, plasma pre-treatment is associated with changes of initial composite surface chemistry only. The purpose of plasma action in polymer pre-treatment is to provide ample amount of active surface sites where Pd ions can be attached effectively. XPS analysis revealed, that Pd atom on plasma treated surface takes the form of its oxide compounds PdO and PdO2 preferably, while its form on the surface of standard chemical pre-treatment is mostly metallic-Pd.

A comparison of chemical bath deposition of CdS from a batch reactor and a continuous-flow micro-reactor.

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JES

A Comparison of Cobalt and Nickel as Additives for Acid Hard Gold Plating Processes

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A Comparison of Copper Bar Anodes

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Comparison of proprietary anodes "Brand 1" etc with photos showing results, e.g "necking" and discussion in terms of their P content, use of various types of anode bag and impurity levels. 4 refs.