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A comparison of corrosion resistance between magnesium alloys treated by micro-arc and chemical oxidation.

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A comparison of corrosion behavior is made between magnesium alloy surface oxide films formed by micro-arc and chemical black oxidation with electrochemical method and CASS. The results show that magnesium alloy can be improved in corrosion resistance both by micro-arc oxidation and chemical black oxidation, but more obviously by the latter.

A comparison of DC and pulsed iron nickel alloy deposits

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JES Effect of hydrodynamics and temp. on electrodeposition of Fe-Ni alloys was investigated with dc, pulse, and pulse-reverse electrodeposition techniques. Strong mass-transfer effects in co-deposition of Fe on rotating cylindrical cathodes were indicated at high CDs. Features of deposition process are consistent with Hessami and Tobias model. Comparison of polarization behavior of single-metal and alloy deposition demonstrate lower rate of Ni co-deposition in accord with anomalous co- deposition of Fe-Ni alloys. Crystalline phases (fcc, bcc, and mixed fcc + bcc) in electrodeposited alloys depend on alloy composition and deposition conditions. Thermal expansion coeffs. of electroformed cylinders of near-Invar compositions ranged from 7.7-10.9 x 10E-6/°C for unannealed alloys to 4-5 x 10E-6/°C for alloys annealed at 680°C. Aver. internal stress of deposits increased with increasing Fe content.

A comparison of DLC film properties obtained by r.f. PACVD, IBAD, and enhanced pulsed-DC PACVD.

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A comparison of experimental methods and computer programmes for determining metal ion concentrations

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Solns. were prepared containing various combinations of glycine or citric, nitrilotriacetic, salicylic and ethylenediaminetetra-acetic acids and up to 4 trace metals, Cu, Zn, Mn and Cd at various ionic strengths in Ca(NO3), or KNO3 nitrate at range of pH values. In each soln. proportion of each metal present as divalent ion was measured using ion-exchange equilibrium technique and Cu and Cd ion-selective electrodes. Results were compared with predictions by computer programmes ECCLES and GEOCHEM. Agreement was good if stability constants in programmes were selected critically from published compilations. Measured metal ion concns. in solns. displaced from metal-contaminated soils were compared with predictions made by computer speciation programmes.

A comparison of lead-free vs. eutectic solders

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16-lead CERDIP packages with Alloy 42 lead frames were successfully hot-dip processed with Pb-free solder candidates. In board-level soldering PCBs could be soldered with b-free solders at 300°C as well as at standard temp of 260°C with novisible damage. Rough surfaced fillets were observed on both sides and bridging/excess solder on bottom of boards soldered with Pb-free alternatives. 63/37 Sn/Pb solder produced best performance. 96.5/3/Sn/Ag was most promising alternative.

A comparison of mechanical lapping versus chemical-assisted mechanical polishing and planarization of chemical vapor deposited (CVD) diamond

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DIAM Polishing and planarization of CVD diamond substrates are essential in processing of synthetic diamond for applications in semiconductor industry. Using mech. lapping and CAMP, CVD diamond samples were polished against cast-iron scaife and alumina plate, resp., using same pressure on samples. Diamond slurry was used in mech. lapping process, and heated liquid chemical was used in patented chemical-assisted mechanical polishing and planarization (CAMPP) process. Polishing rate and surface characteristics of diamond samples were primary analytical measurements, and data were used to compare relative lapping/polishing efficiencies of processes to develop optimized process for producing highly polished CVD diamond substrates.

A comparison of the electrochemical behaviour of W-M-N (M = Ni, Ti, Al) thin film coatings on high speed steel

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Electrochemical behaviour of W-M-N (M = Ni, Ti, Al) thin-film hard coatings on high speed steel was studied. Films 4µm thick of WNi, WTi and WTi-Al with/without N2 were produced by DC diode sputtering. Electrochemical measurements were carried out in aq. KCl soln. Shows importance of influence of N on coating behaviour. Differences between coating types due to combination of metallic elements are evident. Corrosion is localised at spec. points in coating, which appear in 1st hour after immersion, involving corrosion beneath coating followed by film rupture. Model describing corrosion process is discussed.

A comparison of the friction and reciprocating wear behaviour between an austenitic (X 2 CrNiMo 17 13 2) and a ferritic (X 1 CrNiMoNb 28 4 2) stainless steel after nitrogen ion implantation

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SURF Austenitic stainless steel containing 17% Cr and 12% Ni and ferritic stainless steel containing 28% Cr and 3% Ni were implanted with N at 60 and 100 keV and implantation doses of 1 x10E17 and 1 x 10E18 nitrogen (+) ions/sq.cm. Microstructural transformations were investigated, and 2 hardening mechanisms were identified: solid soln. hardening in austenite and precipitation hardening in ferrite. Wear behaviour of samples nitrided at 100 keV and 4 x 10E17 N+/sq.cm under cyclic sliding motion was explained in correlation with surface microstructure.

A comparison of the friction associated with diamond-like carbon (DLC) or titanium nitride plating metal brackets.

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A comparison of the oxidation behavior of CrN films deposited using continuous dc, pulsed dc and modulated pulsed power magnetron sputtering.

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A comparison of the wear life of as-deposited and ion-irradiated tungsten disulphide coatings

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SURF Effects of high energy (MeV) ion-irradiation on wear life of amorphous sputter-deposited WS2 coatings were studied. Coatings were deposited by DC magnetron sputtering on M50 steel and Si3N4 substrates. Coatings were amorphous before and after irradiations. Compared to as- deposited coating, ion-irradiated WS2 coating exhibited higher hardness and increased adhesion. Wear life of ion-irradiated WS2 coating was significantly improved in both vacuum and humid environments due to enhanced adhesion and higher hardness.

A comparison of thermal shock behavior between currently plasma spray and supersonic plasma spray CeO2-Y2O3-ZrO2 graded thermal barrier coatings.

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A Complex Air Cleaning System

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Description, with diagram, of a small but sophisticated air cleaning system to remove VOC's etc from smaller paint plants by absorption and oxidation.

A Complex Method of Applying Aluminium to Carbon Fiber.

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A composite anodizing coating containing superfine Al2O3 particles on AZ31 magnesium alloy.

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SURF Anodic coatings with and without superfine Al2O3 particles were prepared on AZ31 magnesium alloy by anodizing in an environmentally friendly alkaline solution. The microstructure and morphology of the coatings were analyzed using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy. The corrosion resistance of the uncoated AZ31 substrate and the anodic coatings was evaluated in 3.5% NaCl solution through potentiodynamic polarization tests. Friction and wear tests were performed to evaluate the wear resistance of the samples. The results show that the composite oxide coating has better corrosion resistance than the coating without Al2O3 nanoparticles. The microhardness of the composite coating with reinforced Al2O3 nanoparticles is up to 358 HV. When rubbed at 10 N load for 3 min during sliding against GCr15 at ambient temperature, the wear loss of the film was about 0.04 mm3, which is about one-tenth of that of the anodizing coating without nanoparticles. Therefore, the composite anodizing coating with Al2O3 nanoparticles shows better anti-corrosion and anti-wear properties than the coating without Al2O3 nanoparticles.