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Background & details of ANKA GmbH, Karlsruhe synchrotron source

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Title machine is intended to be used for analytical tasks and also for micro-electroforming of nanostructures and micro-engineering, where short wavelength offers higher resolution than visible light (ANKA = ANgstrom source atKarlsruhe, and is a private company). Website www.anka-online.com

Background concentration values for heavy metals in soils

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Criteria are laid down for acceptable concentrations of heavy metals, bearing in mind the use of the land and other factors.

Backing plate for sputtering target

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Backwashing Filter

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Backwashing filtration systems

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Overview noting how flowrate decreases as filters are progressively blocked (graphs show this) and how daily back-washing eliminates the problem. Typical cost savings are shown.

BACT - Best Available Control Technology - equivalent for control of VOC emissions from paint dipping operations

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Case study based on steel joist manufacturer John W Hancock Jr, in Salem, Va, where compliance with US environmental legislation was the driver. Tests suggested that increasing VOC content in paints would result in up to 30% less paint use, thereby leading to 24% lower VOC emissions. Graphs show VOC emissions & paint use per tonne of steel coated over 12 months. Finding is that paint dipping, as application method, is quite different from other techniques and that in development of MACT & VOC rules, a failure to understand the mechanisms of dipping could result in larger, rather than reduced VOC emissions.

Bacteria behind a mesh - treatment of effluent with low levels of organics

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Note on new EIMO(R) process which claims to be able to treat cost-effectively, water with low levels of organic contamination not hitherto possible. Bacteria are contained in ca 4mm hollow plastic spheres.

Bacterial survival rates on copper & stainless steel

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Report of work which suggests that survival rate of bacteria e-coli 0157 at 4°C can be up to 35 days on stainless steel, up to 14 hrs on copper, due to the bactericidal action of Cu (ions) and residence of bacteria lodged in microscopic pits in stainless steel surface. Implications for food industry hygiene are noted.

Bacterial & fungicidal growth on treated aluminium heat exchanger & cooling fins

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While cold-rolled Al strip is an ideal material for cooling fins, there is a potential problem linked to growth of fungii or bacterial growth. The paper presents results of microbiological tests for various Al surfaces, chromated, phosphated, and with hydrophilic lacquer or paint. Discussion of the role of wetting and graph shows effect of surface coating or finish on air flowrate across fins. Test materials incl. candida albicans, aspergillus niger, escherichia coli, pseudomonas aeruginosa. Test results are shown, methodology described in detail. 6 refs

Bacterial adherence to silver nitrate coated polylactic acid urological stents in vitro.

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Bacterial adhesion on amorphous and crystalline metal oxide coatings.

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Several studies have demonstrated the influence of surface properties (surface energy, composition and topography) of biocompatible materials on the adhesion of cells/bacteria on solid substrates; however, few have provided information about the effect of the atomic arrangement or crystallinity. Using magnetron sputtering deposition, we produced amorphous and crystalline TiO2 and ZrO2 coatings with controlled micro and nanoscale morphology. The effect of the structure on the physical–chemical surface properties was carefully analyzed. Then, we studied how these parameters affect the adhesion of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Our findings demonstrated that the nano-topography and the surface energy were significantly influenced by the coating structure. Bacterial adhesion at micro-rough (2.6 µm) surfaces was independent of the surface composition and structure, contrary to the observation in sub-micron (0.5 µm) rough surfaces, where the crystalline oxides (TiO2 > ZrO2) surfaces exhibited higher numbers of attached bacteria. Particularly, crystalline TiO2, which presented a predominant acidic nature, was more attractive for the adhesion of the negatively charged bacteria. The information provided by this study, where surface modifications are introduced by means of the deposition of amorphous or crystalline oxide coatings, offers a route for the rational design of implant surfaces to control or inhibit bacterial adhesion.

Bacterial Attachment to Titanium and Hydroxyapatite Based Films.

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Bacterial barrier for indwelling catheters and other medical devices.

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A novel bacterial barrier for medical devices comprising a strip or band of oligodynamic metal connected to another conductor generally connected in open circuit to a power cell and producing a strategic circumferential zone of bacterial inhibition when the medical device is installed.

Bacterial corrosion of metals: Pt 1. Identification, cultivation of bacteria, gravimetric corrosion measurements on steel

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PROT Work mainly carried out in tropical Cuba examines different grades of steel, effects of preservative oils & greases, these being found to be unsuited to tropical conditions.

Bacterial growth ? No chance!

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Various metal finishing and painting processes offer scope for bacterial growth, moulds, slimes etc, inc. electrocoat paint baths, ion-exchange columns and membranes. Deionised water systems likewise can harbour microorganisms and biofilms can form. Bacterial growth in general is discussed, incl. the remarkable adaptability of bacteria to adapt and mutate to any given environment. Photos show brown slime formed after 4 weeks in a Reverse Osmosis plant (RO). The need to develop more effective biocides is noted. Colour photos show various examples of biofilm growth & formation. 6 refs