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Calculations of the Compositions of Electrochemical Coatings and Suspensions for Preparing them.
Techniques are described for making calcns. relating to the electrodeposition of inert particle-electroplated metal composites; these can also be applied to a purely electrophoretic process. Diagrams and formulas are presented for calcg. the actual particle concn. in the suspension, and the properties of the coating for coatings of gold + corundum. silver + graphite, nickel (cobalt & copper) + molybdenum disulphide, and Ni(Cu)-polymer, etc.
Calculations on deposition and redeposition in plasma etch processes
JES Sidewall films can be formed during etching by redeposition of etch products and sputtered material from bottom of etched structure, by deposition of material sputtered from mask edge, or by deposition of material from plasma space. For each process geometrical characteristics are calculated. Discussion of spatial and temporal development of sidewall films due to 3 mechanisms is given.
Calculations on finish electrochemical forming
Calibrating a viscometer
Graph shows temperature - viscosity plot of calibration oil & math equations governing results are shown. Sketch shows top-pan balance used to measure load.
Calibrating Magnetic Thickness Testing Gauges
Calibrating the climate Part 2. Correlations between different weathering tests
Using data from coil coated strip, correlations between accelerated tests and actual atmospheric exposure data is reported. 6 artificial weathering tests were used, 3 standard tests and 3 as combinations of artificial weathering & artificial corrosion tests. Graphs show correlation between WOM + TCT test and natural exposure for polyesters & non-polyesters. Tables show internal correlations between various artificial weathering tests and similar for various outdoor exposure tests. The WOM + TCT correlates well with several natural weathering tests, but other accelerated tests do not. 3 refs
Calibration of electrolytic conductivity cells for high purity water
It is not possible to use calibration solutions directly for high purity water with very high electrical resistivity. A procedure which links to Standard methods is fraught with errors. A calibration set (Con Cal) is described, which gives results in good agreement with other methods, and circumvents problems due to absence of calibration solutions for such high resistivity liquids.
Calibration & Use of 40kW Plasma Arc as High Temperature Materials Test Tool
Title app'tus can be used to determine thermal stability of materials.
Calibration of Raman shift by temperature dependence of a spectrometer.
Raman spectroscopy is widely used to analyze the crystallographic states of materials surfaces and thin films. Raman shift is informative to analyze stresses or defective bonds on surfaces. However, because of the instability of room temperature, the overall precision of the measured Raman shift is not always satisfied in a commercial Raman spectroscopy system. The effect of room temperature on Raman shift in a spectrometer with large dispersion is reported. The temperature dependence of the system was predicted theoretically by a difference in thermal expansion coefficients between an optical bench and diffraction grating, which indicates that a linear shift of wave number is effective to cancel the apparent temperature shift. As an example of high-resolution measurements, strain-induced Raman shift of diamond was calibrated by the reference emission line of Hg to detect a shift of less than the resolution: 0.3cm*-1. Furthermore, laser-induced heating of Si surface was evaluated only by calibration based on room temperature without using any reference emission lines.
Calibration terms for thickness gauges
Learning the meaning of terms used in this sector incl. types of instrument - pull-off gauges, electronic gauges, reference standards & coating thickness standards, calibration shims. Disc'n of calibration, certification & traceability, re-calibration, roughness, repeatability and base metal readings. 3 refs
California air pollution regulations governing marine coatings
Status of California regulations is summarised and the environmental aspects of Navy specification coatings are examined. While relevant Californian authorities have exempted marine coatings from VOC content per requirements, coatings may not contain photo-chemically reactive solvents. An R & D approach is suggested.
California and EPA hazardous waste regulations
Waste regulations issued by California are more stringent than those of EPA. Whereas EPA limits soluble thresold limit concn., California regulates total threshold limit concn., as well as amount extracted from leaching soln. In addition, California regulates inorganic substances (e.g. Cu, Zn and compounds) not regulated by EPA.
California no longer the leader in environmental regulations for efficient spraying
Discussion of environmental legislation at State level and even below this (City level) where transfer efficiency > 65% is in some cases required. Limitations of traditional HVLP in meeting quality & productivity levels are noted. Trends in other States favouring airless or air-assisted paint spraying are felt to be more enlightened, as is explained. It is hoped that California revises its legislation without sacrificing VOC restrictions.
California Plater Switches to Non-Cyanide Copper Plating - Case Study
Case study where plater switched to alkaline non-cyanide Cu gives 5 reasons (benefits) and describes change-over and minor problems encountered.
California's Rule 1122 on VOC's from cleaners could be a model
Report on State environmental legislation which might be adopted federally in the USA. Comments on air emission limits, costs of enforcement & technologies used.