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Cadmium alloy baths and coatings with special reference to analysis

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Reviews plating solns. for Cd-Zn based on cyanide-zincate and Cd-Sn bath based on fluoborate. Analytical methods are described for plating solns. and coatings.

Cadmium coating alternatives for high strength steels - an update

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The US DOD continued search to eliminate use of Cd, here 3 coatings are tested in detail. Low Hydrogen Embrittlement (LHE) zinc-nickel, sputtered aluminium & electroplated Al. LHE electroplated Cd and IVD aluminium were baselines against which the 3 methods were tested. Initial coatings and repair coating requirements (to replace brush-plated Cd) were sought. Coating appearance, ease of stripping, adhesion (bend test). Coating failures on titanium substrate are shown. Wet tape paint adhesion test was also used. Breakaway torque adhesion for fasteners is plotted and detailed. Table lists results of hydrogen embrittlement tests. At the end of Phase I testing, electroplated and sputtered Al emerged well, electroplated Zn-Ni did not meet all criteria. Testing throughout was done to civilian or military standards.

Cadmium coatings with increased corrosion results.

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Cadmium Compliance Achieved with Electrowinning

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High surface area cathodes were used in an electrolytic recovery cell which reduced conc'ns of cadmium & cyanide in rinsewater to close to zero mgs/litre.

Cadmium determination

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Describes 'Kvettest LCK 308' photometric test for Cd in aq. soln., using Cadion, 1-(4-nitrophenyl)-3-(4-phenylazophenyl)triazene, determining Cd in range of 0.01-0.30 mg/l.

Cadmium Electrodeposition - Alternatives to Cadmium & Cyanide

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SFEN Author examines alternative anions for Cd plating & alternatives to Cd as a whole. Table lists EPA permitted effluent discharge concentration limits. Table shows matrix for gold, silver, cadmium, chromium, copper, iron, nickel, tin & zinc, vs. alternative anions - sulphate, chloride, fluoborate, fluosilicate, sulphamate, pyrophosphate, cyanide, hydroxy and other. Major uses and possible alternatives are shown in this for each combination. Alternatives to Cd are listed with salt spray corrosion data incl;. for zinc nickel alloy as plated & chromated. Taber wear data are shown for various Zn coatings, Zn-Ni. Treatment of Cd effluent incl. precipitation & electrolysis are described with graphical data. 7 refs.

Cadmium Electrodeposition from Ammonia + Ethylenediamine Baths

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PROT Report of activation energy from polarisation plots taken at a range of temperatures and the effect of ammonia and ethylenediamine conc'ns on these. 4 refs

Cadmium Electrodeposition from Ammonium Chloride + Polyethylene Polyamine

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PROT Polarisation plots are shown. Graphs plot solubility of Cd chloride with & without polyethylene polyamine (PEPA). Effects of PEPA conc'n on polarisation are shown. Light fine-grained deposits are formed. Some data on throwing power & metal distribution & buffering capacity. 4 refs

Cadmium Electrodeposition from Ammonium Sulphate with Organic Additives

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PROT Organic addition agents used included gelatin, dextrin, crude carbolic acid, glycocoll, Na lauryl sulphate, urotropine & proprietary products. Graph shows deposit thickness vs. distance from cathode (= throwing power) & polarisation. Throwing power is better than all other commercial baths except cyanide. Some corrosion test results are given for a 20µm Cd coating. 5 refs

Cadmium Electrodeposition from Polyethylene Polyamine Electrolytes

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PROT PEPA (polyethylene polyamine) is a mixture of homologues of straight-chain amines. Data are given on vapour pressure & volatility, stability constants for Cd complexes (K(H), pK(H) &specific electrical conductivity. Titration curves for PEPA baths are shown, throwing power, micrographs of structures. High quality Cd deposits were obtained, better with added ammonium sulphate. Optimum bath comp'n is given. 5 refs

Cadmium Electrodeposition from Sulphate Solution in Presence of Sapal

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PROT Polarisation plots, throwing power are shown with & without sapal, a detergent type cmpd "used in light industry". It was found to be a useful component of a sulphate based bath. 7 refs

Cadmium electrodeposition from water-acetone perchlorate baths.

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Cadmium electrodeposition from water-acetone perchlorate baths.

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Cadmium Electrodeposition with Co-Adsorption of Several Surfactants

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PROT Polarisation plots show effect (depolarising actions) of various organic additives and the effect of temperature on this, for single and several organics present in solution. The role of chloride ion is complex and is discussed. 12 refs

Cadmium Electrodeposits with Increased Corrosion Resistance

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PROT Cd plating bath composition is given containing organophosphorus addition of phosphorylated thioamine type. Infra-red spectra & structural formulae are shown. Table lists corrosion resistance, ductility, hardness, cathode current efficiency & appearance. 2 SEMs show surface. 5 refs.