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Cadmium replacement for high tensile steels
Comparative studies carried out in Australia shows zinc nickel alloy to be best alternative to Cd, though further work is necessary before this is authorised officially. Alternative to chromate conversion coating, albeit not under the most severe conditions, is coating using cerium
Alternatives are discussed. Useful properties of Cd are summarised and its performance, e.g corrosion resistance, detailed in salt spray tests or electrochemical potential (emf) series. Options include aluminium & zinc & their alloys and means by which these can be applied and their performance is reviewed. 6 refs
Cadmium Titanium Alloy Deposits from a Non Cyanide Bath
Cadmium-Titanium alloy was dep'd from a chloride bath. Polarisation data are given, H permeation currents vs. time, notch endurance tensile tests, salt spray corrosion tests and structural analyses. High strength steel is not embrittled by this dep'n process.
Cadmium Titanium Plating - A Superior Low Embrittlement Finish for High Strength Aircraft Parts
Title process (with ca 0.3% Ti) is described with its historical antecedents. Comments on Cd plating & US standards and Cd-Ti with applicable standards. Process is described & benefits listed. Tests for coating include sustained load test, hydrogen gauge test (Boeing Plating Porosity meter is described). Comments on chromate treatment & work at Ansett. Table compares 5 specifications for "cadmium plating" (incl. title process.)
Cadmium wastes and possibilities for recycling
Cd wastes from anodes and spent Cd plating baths are returned to suppliers. Cd ppts. from effluent treatment are filtered and disposed of.
Cadmium-free junction for CuInSe2 thin film solar cells
Thin film heterojunction photovoltaic device is made by depositing film of p-type CuInSe2 on metal back contact; depositing group IIb halide; doping CuInSe2 by thermal diffusion of group IIb halide; depositing 2nd thin film of high resistivity zinc oxide layer.
Cadmium-free thick film conductor composition
Composition containing lead- and Cd free glass composition consisting of (mole-%) Bi2O3 5-70, silica 18-35, copper (II) oxide 0. 1-40, ZnO 0.5-25, CoO 0.5-40, ferric oxide 5-40 and MnO 0. 5-40.
Cadmium: EEC Commission planning new initiatives to limit emissions
European Commission is drawing up proposals for EEC measures. Proposals for control of Cd emissions are outlined. Manufactured products including Cd-plated metal parts, plastics, pigments/dyes and batteries, are claimed to be chief source of Cd emissions into atmosphere.
CAF-resistant substrates for printed circuit boards
CAF = Conductive Anodic Filament and the migration of copper ions along the length of a glass fibre bundle is enhanced at high temperatures, humidities and potential gradients. The problem is minimised when the glass fibres are totally wetted with conductive resin. Sketches show effects, a graph plots insulation resistance over 2000 hrs for CAF-resistance & normal basis materials. SEM's show resin-glass matt structure before & after optimisation.
Calcination condition effect on microstructure, electrochemical and hemolytic behavior of amorphous nanotubes on Ti6Al7Nb alloy.
Calcined, high surface area, particulate matter, processes using this matter, and admixtures with other agents.
Production and use of high surface area particulate matter by calcining a charge of clay mineral, feldspar, zeolite, coal ash, fly ash, pozzolan or volcanic ash for a time to develop fractures which increase the surface area of the particles. Vacuum calcining decreases the calcining time. The calcined matter desirably has an analysis including: calcium oxide, about 20-40 weight %; aluminum oxide, about 15-35 weight %; and silicon oxide, about 20-40 weight %. The calcined particulate matter can be used in the treatment of impure aqueous materials; the matter is denser than water and sludge settles rapidly and completely. The calcined matter interacts with heavy metal ions to form tightly bound sludge that is nonhazardous for landfill disposal. The calcined matter can be combined with conventional coagulants, flocculants, filter aids, or activated carbon to obtain a multipurpose treating agent. The calcined particulate matter can be combined with exotic waste water treating agents obtaining results not attainable by these exotic agents alone. The exotic agents are borohydride, dialkyldithiocarbamates where alkyl has 1-5 carbon atoms and 'carbamate' has alkali metal or ammonium, dithionites, glycine, hydrazine salts, metabisulfites, polygalacturonic acid, water soluble sulfides and sulfites, and cellulose and starch xanthates. This appears to be the basis of a proprietary product known as polynucleolyte.
Calcining tool material
Calcining tool material comprises alumina silica based substrate with min. 65 wt% alumina and flame-sprayed zirconia -coating layer made of unstabilized zirconia mixed with (partly) stabilized ZrO2 formed on substrate.
Calcium Alumina Silicate Formulation for Solidification of Heavy Metals
Calcium as a Phosphating Additive: An Overview
Use of Ca to modify crystal structure, as substitute for activation or pre-dip, to improve corrosion resistance, paint adhesion, for metal workability (dry lubrication), for low temperature phosphating and for multi-metal or non-ferrous substrates, is reviewed with 29 refs.
Calcium containing phosphating solution
Fe surfaces are phosphated at 10-49°C with soln. containing 0. 01-1 moles/1 Ca phosphate (as Ca++) and at least trace of accelerator, pH being below lowest pH value which would cause soln. to be saturated with Ca phosphate, pref. above 3, e.g., 3.7-3.8 Ca phosphate may be supplied by CaCO3 and H3PO4, and accelerator is pref. alkali metal nitrite or chlorate, peroxides, nitrobenzene sulphonate or hydroxylamine salts.