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Ecological & Economic Aspects of Metal Finishing - Sludges & Effluent Separation
Wide-rangeing discussion shows how effluent discharge limits have tightened from 1973 to 1990. Histograms show time sequence of copper & zinc discharge in effluent over 3 years from plating shops. Sludge re-processing, sludge treatment (conditioning) and the differences & similarities between plating sludges and metal winning ores are discussed. Possibilities for avoiding sludge formation are examined. Rinsing schemes in which flows from different baths remain segregated are discussed, flowsheets are shown. Cost factors for such schemes are listed. 4 refs.
Ecological and economic advantages of the Dornier-RMA
Describes this ion exchange method for water recirculation and recovery of metals, including Cr, Ni, Cu and Cd.
Ecological and industrial solution: thermal paint stripping
Ecological anticorrosive pigments: alkaline earth phosphates
Modified calcium phosphates were compared with other phosphate pigments, e.g., Zn phosphate, in relation to anticorrosive properties. Both solvent-borne and water-borne coatings were examined. Chemical formulae provided for pigments contain x moles magnesium phosphate to each mole of Ca phosphate.
Ecological aspects in pretreatment
Adaptation of plant and use of recycling techniques is discussed mechanical derusting, and Fe, Zn and solvent-based phosphating processes.
Ecological aspects of chemical surface treatment before painting in the light of new regulations
Problems and effluent compounds resulting from surface pretreatment processes are outlined. Polish environmental legislation, and requirements for integration into European Union directives, are discussed.
Ecological aspects of powder coating and dip painting compared
Ecological balance of powder coating
Title method is assessed in terms of eco-audits with table listing, for different types of powder, mass of powder per automotive car body, energy equivalent of the powder and its application and additional energy requirements. Other parameters taken into account are toxic species formed and carbon dioxide emissions.
Ecological company operation optimisation
Conceptual - theoretical approach to production processes in which environmental factors are a major consideration. Flow charts show thought processes. 4 refs
Ecological effects of thermal pretreatment in vitreous enamelling
Author presents overall problem. Environmentally harmful components of lubricating oil are identified and discussed and apparatus for analysis of aldehyde & ketone liberating compounds is sketched. Table lists 5 oil samples & their metallic constituents. Histograms show surface roughness of steel sheet after annealing and table summarises classes of species formed by heating or incineration, e.g decomposition products. Histograms show distribution of various classes from different types of oil breakdown. The environmental impact of classical enamelling & direct enamelling processes are shown, incl. pickling, etching, nickel plating, thermal treatment. Concludes with recommendation for pretreatment conditions (air, 400°C, 3 min).
Ecological investigations in the introduction of a new paint system
Ecological evaluation of paint system is described on hand of example of a cathodic electrocoating system. Gaseous emissions are characterised by gas chromatography and effluent treatment requirements determined in terms of ultrafiltration, in relation to effect on micro-organisms of activated sludge, biodegradability and toxicity to fish after effluent treatment. Attempts to eliminate heavy metals from pigment components re included.
Ecological prepaint treatment of aluminium alloys
Overview of pretreatment methods for Al, prior to painting or powder coating. Processes discussed incl. alkaline cleaning, phosphating, chromating (hexavalent). More recent ecological processes incl. biochemical cleaning and organic dry-in-place and chromium-free passivate conversion coating. 7 refs
Ecological requirements for operators of electroplating plant
Summarises legislation on effluent, emission control and operator safety applying to electroplating departments, under headings of halogenated hydrocarbons, safety at work and waste disposal control system. Literature on legislation in force in W. Germany is appended.
Ecological safety of solvents and the technology of removing coatings from optical surfaces
Data are given on new washing compsn. and method of removing adhesive resins and coatings from precision optical surfaces. Washing compsns. based on N-methylpyrrolidone are alternative to toxic and ozone-destroying compds. for removing both polar and non-polar compds.
Ecological studies on a newly introduced paint system
Ecological impact of cathodic electrodeposition paint was investigated with respect to gaseous emissions and effluent discharge. Former were no higher than from anodic systems; effluents were purified using biological means without toxic effects on fish.