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Early PEO glow discharge.
Early Precious Metal Objects from South Germany
Sketches of prehistorical artefacts mainly in gold & silver, little detail on surface finishing, extensive list of recommended reading.
Early product finishing. Pt. 1
Early oxide finish application processes are reviewed.
Early protective coatings. Part I. Oils, fats and paints
(94:207815) Historical review with 28 refs.
Early stage of diamond formation on carbon/carbon composites
SURF Diamond formation on 2 types of C composites was investigated using plasma-enhanced CVD system. Nucleation density of diamond was not affected by addition of oxygen in region of 0-0.3%. However, growth rate decreased with increasing O content. Also, presence of copper enhanced growth rate. Effect could be hindered due to addition of O.
Early Stage of Tin Oxide Film Growth in Chemical Vapor Deposition
Early Stages of CdTe Epitaxial Growth on Gold Single Crystal Electrode Surfaces
GB9823299 SIGLE DSC
Early stages of cobalt electrodeposition on FTO and n-type Si substrates in sulfate medium.
MCP The mechanism of cobalt electrocrystallization on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO)-coated conducting glass substrate has been studied and compared with results obtained on n-type Si electrodes. The initial stages of metal deposition from a solution of 0.25 M CoSO4, 1 M Na2SO4 and 0.5 M H3BO3 (pH 3.5) were investigated using cyclic voltammetry, and chronoamperometry measurements. Important kinetics parameters were estimated from the analysis of current transients on the basis of the Scharifker-Hills model for electrochemical nucleation and diffusion-controlled growth. From the analysis of the experimental current transients, it was found that the process of cobalt deposition involves a three-dimensional (3D) electrochemical nucleation and diffusion-controlled growth. A strong dependence of the number density of active sites N0 with applied potential was observed on both FTO and n-type Si electrodes.
Early Stages of Corrosion of Nickel & Nickel Chromium Electrodeposits
Microscopic study in which outdoor exposure results are linked to corrodkote data. 17 refs.
Early stages of lead dioxide electrodeposition on rough titanium
Electrodeposition of PbO2 onto rough Ti surfaces was studied using voltammetric and chronoamperometric techniques. Behaviour of system is function of upper potential limit and of surface topography, and can be explained bearing in mind competence between (in activation) of support and electrodeposition process. Influence of ultrasonic field in process has also been analyzed.
Early stages of microcrystalline silicon film growth on amorphous substrate with silane gas heating
Effect of SiH4 gas heating was investigated for growth of microcrystalline Si (µc-Si) thin film by PECVD and low pressure CVD to improve crystallinity and inhomogeneities at early stage of growth on amorphous substrate such as SiO2. By using cathode heating technique, T(c) = 550°C, crystallinity was enhanced from early stage of growth in PECVD of SiH4 highly diluted in hydrogen at substrate temp., T(s) = 200°C.
Early stages of oxidation of uncoated and PVD silica coated FeCrAl foils.
SURF The high temperature oxidation characteristics of uncoated and SiO2 PVD-coated FeCrAl foils have been investigated when exposed to laboratory air at 1000 °C during 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32 and 60 min. The oxidized samples were characterized using SEM, EDS, AES and SIMS. The results show that the presence of a 100 nm thin SiO2 PVD coating significantly reduces the oxidation rate of the FeCrAl foil during early stages of oxidation. The decreased oxidation rate displayed by the SiO2 coated FeCrAl foil is the result of the SiO2 coating acting as an initial diffusion barrier promoting the formation of a predominantly inward growing Al2O3 layer during oxidation. Additionally, by using EDS analysis together with AES and SIMS depth profiling it was shown that the total concentration of Si in the grown oxide scale decreased during oxidation.
Early stages of passive film formation on chromium studied by three- parameter ellipsometry
JES Passive film formation on Cr surface was studied by 3-parameter ellipsometry as film was formed by anodic polarization in citrate buffer solns. Thickness and optical constants of film were obtained from automatic measurements as functions of time of anodic polarization, from subsecond to 60 s range. Thickness of passive film increased rapidly within few s, during which both real and imaginary parts of complex refractive index of film changed. Film properties approached near stationary-state values after c. 20 s. Stationary-state film thickness increased linearly with potential of Cr electrode and depended on pH of electrolyte, whereas optical constants did not show significant dependence on these factors. Passive film appeared to be homogeneous single near-dielectric film, possibly of composition close to Cr2O3. No indication of transformation of film was observed during early stages of passivation.
Earthing in electrostatic powder coating is crucial
A self-styled "grounding fanatic" explains benefits of good earthing and problems when this is not in place.
Ease of colouring and chemical treatment of steel sheets with composite electrolytic coatings containing SiO2
Ease of chemical treatment and colouring of steel sheets with Zn-11% Ni alloy coating contg. SiO2 (3.5%), coating wt. 20 g/m*2, particle size 40 µm is studied.