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ECM: Three New Ways to Remove Metal

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ECM; New Techniques in Machining

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ECMP System.

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An improved electrochemical IR calculation and correction system allows for the precise measurement and control of the interfacial voltage drop at an electrode double layer. Thus this improved IR correction ability allows ECMP to be used for precise surface polishing that would otherwise be impractical with ECMP. The system comprises a working electrode, a counter electrode, and a reference electrode. An electrical perturbator is applied to the system and a unique IR calculation circuit is used to determine the IR drop. In an embodiment of the invention applicable to ECMP, an IR correction is provided such that the polishing at the surface of interest is precisely controlled despite the IR drop in the system.

ECMP System.

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Ohmic drop correction in electrochemical mechanical polishing. (equiv. US 2005167266)

Eco management in a plating plant

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Introduction of eco management can bring benefits such as organisational restructuring, risk and cost minimising and improved competitiveness. Greater benefits can be won when the procedure is invoked at the planning stage.

Eco-Audit - a tool to increase competitiveness ?

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Very detailed report of DGO meeting for printed circuit board mfrs. Histogram statistics show enormous difference between German & Eastern European labour costs, and large difference between German & rest-of-world corporate tax levels. Data on cross-border investment, decrease in Berlin job creation, strength of the environmental "green" movement, growth of environmental legislation in Germany. All paint a gloomy picture for Germany. Role of eco-audit & its status in EU legislation is shown. Impact on a company of undertaking an eco-audit is shown in detail. Flow-charts show the eco-audit thought processes. Graph shows cost trends in recent years (labour, taxation, capital etc). Statistics for European companies having carried out eco-audits or similar (ISO 14.001) are shown incl. companies with environmental managements. Germany is world leader in these, UK comes second in most cases. Public opinion surveys on willingness to be taxed for environmental benefits. Concludes in somewhat vague manner that eco-audits can be beneficial to financial health of a company.

Eco-audit for plating shop at Huber + Suhner AG, Switzerland

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Report, with organisational & activity chart, of title eco-audit.

Eco-Audit for Swiss plating firm Huber + Suhner AG. Pt 2.

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Chart sets out inputs & outputs and discusses effluent, waste & recycled material, emissions to air & soil. Very detailed breakdown of costs & energy use.

Eco-Audit Legislation as part of EU (European Union) Environmental Politics

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Note on EU legislation, internal & external Eco-audits and the need for wide-ranging "know-how". 8 refs (to EU legislation).

Eco-audit of degreasing plants. Pt 2

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Pt 2, examines inventories of chlorinated solvent plants & aqueous or hydrocarbon cleaning plants and compares them partly on that basis. Other criteria include energy requirements, transport, solid waste production. Plant types & cleaning technologies are classified according to their environmental impacts. 4 refs

Eco-audit of degreasing plants. Pt. 1

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Describes different types of cleaning plant, a Swiss derived protocol for Eco-Audits with examples of points scoring for a given installation. Comments on productivity, table shows specific parameters for chlorinated solvent plants. Process flow sheets show these and also aqueous type units with data for ultrafiltration and vacuum evaporation. Similar tables describe hydrocarbon cleaning & aqueous (performance over 1 year) with electrical power requirements, chemicals etc. Comments on volume & nature of effluent formed.

Eco-audits and requirements on auditors in ISO 19011

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How to carry out an audit and features of special importance are set out.

Eco-Audits in Electroplating

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Reports increasing implementation of eco-audits and surrounding uncertainty as to the economic benefits or drawbacks of these. Case study of 1 German plater is given.

Eco-audits in the paint industry

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Discourse against background of German & European environmental legislation.

Eco-balance in a degreasing plant

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Title method similar to eco-audit, is explained in detail and takes into account effluent production, air emissions, energy consumption. Detergent based and solvent-based processes are compared. A number of installations are summarised and a comparison is made on "points" awarded. 4 refs