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Eco-balances and their assessment
Title process (eco-audit) rests on ISO standards such as 14000 and 14010, 14040 and others in series. These and other standards are discussed. Concepts such as life-cycle assessment and environmental performance evaluation are explained. Assessment methods are detailed with listing of criteria and note of databases available. The concept of product eco-balances is introduced.
Eco-balances in Electroplating Plants
Focus on implications of German legislation for plating lines. Process flow sheet for effluent & plating sludges shows which laws & regulations bear in each case. Comments on toxicity and the "eco-tox factor". Tables list toxicity factors for effluents & sludges from most common plating processes. 8 refs
ECO-Etching - recycling of copper - sulphuric acid pcb etchant
Note on the ECO-ETCHING process from Messrs IN.TEC with description & sketch of electrolytic cell which regenerates sulphuric acid & metallic copper.
Eco-friendlier zinc phosphating for white goods
Case study of Messrs Gorenje washing machine mfrs, now using low-nickel process. Degreasing & spray phosphating are described. SEM shows phosphate coating. Passivation is chromium-free, using titanium or zirconium fluorides. 3 refs
Eco-friendly & cost-effective cleaning of paint containers
Major paint mfr (PPG) handles about 50 large paint containers a day for cleaning and repeat trips to automotive industry. Capacity is up to 1000 litres each. Now uses a new DuPont solvent "DBE" in place of older mixt. of xylyl alcohol & butyl acetate. Process is described for cleaning etc and DBE properties are summarised - it is a mict. of dimethyl esters of naturally occurring aliphatic acids. DBE requires no EU "Hazard" labelling. Recycling of water-DBE mixt. is explained.
Eco-friendly cleaning of critical components - using just water & air
Parts cleaning for complex assemblies uses hot water pre-wash, air blasting, further washing & then drying. Pulsed air action removes metallic swarf & similar particulates.
Eco-friendly coating & painting of commercial vehicle components using water-based paints
Painting of automotive components made of plastic with basecoat, primer, topcoat calls for a wide range of surface preparation methods. Increasingly, painting of such components is best carried out by the manufacturer, not the assembler, which introduces its own peculiar problems.
Eco-friendly coating of wood and wood-based materials
A range of paints are compared in terms of their water and solvent contents with emphasis on VOC emissions in each case. UV-cure and water-based score highest.
Eco-friendly conversion coating
Water-based nano-coating is offered as an alternative to hexavalent chromate type systems. SEM image shows coating surface, histogram shows results of acetic acid salt spray corrosion test after 250 hours with significantly lower blistering than chromate type coating. Various features of the coating are set out including its use on a wide range of metallic substrates and wood and its compliance with a range of Standards. Typical coating thickness is 50-100 nm. www.nanocraft.de
Eco-friendly electroless copper deposition
Report on formaldehyde-free formulation using hypophosphite, copper & cobalt sulphate, Na citrate & boric acid. Deposits contain some Co & phosphorus. Deposition rates are faster than from HCHO type baths, adhesion is better as are the mechanical properties, esp. shear strength. Optimum bath compositions are indicated.
Eco-friendly electroless gold for electronics
Report on novel system with unspecified complexant shows anodic & cathodic polarisation curves, rate of biodegradation of new bath and its hazard & toxicity ratings compared with cyanide. Table lists deposition rates, conditions etc for new bath & cyanide type. 7 refs
Eco-friendly etching & pickling of copper & alloys
Uses hydrogen peroxide with no stabilisers for brass, German silver, bronze. Using pH as sole control parameter, surfaces from bright to satin-matt can be obtained.
Eco-friendly metal stripping
Reworking of rejects (taps, sanitary ware & plumbing fittings) at Messrs Grohe, Hemer, where electrochemical (anodic) stripping is used. Photos show tanks in which this is done (nickelis main metal stripped) with plate filters to remove metal sulphate sludges and sketch showing process line. Process economics (compared with traditional methods) are shown in histogram form where chemicals used, water & solid waste use are compared, the electrochemical method bringing substantial savings.
Eco-friendly nitrocarburising plant
Describes title plant which can be integrated into a manufacturing line, and the means employed to prevent gaseous & other emissions to air.
Eco-friendly paint-strippers on test
Dichloromethane for paint stripping from wood, is ozone unfriendly and is being replaced with a range of higher boiling point solvents such as methyl-pyrrolidone, aromatics, benzyl alcohol, dicarbonic acid esters, formic acid etc. The composition & performance of these is reported, but the authors suggest that the new materials might not be as eco-friendly as has been suggested, but simply transferring the problem from air to soil.