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Galvanostatic pulse plating of copper aluminium alloy in a room-temperature chloroaluminate molten salt. Rotating ring-disk electrode studies

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JES Galvanostatic plating of Cu-Al alloy was examined at Pt electrode in solns. of Cu+ in 60.0-40.0 mol % Al chloride-1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride room-temp. molten salt at 28°C. Techniques investigated incl. pulse current, superimposed-pulse current, and reverse-pulse current. Composition of electrodeposited alloy was determined by using rotating ring-disk anodic linear sweep voltammetry. Electrodeposition of Cu-Al is complicated by instability of alloy in solns. containing Cu+. If alloy electrodeposits are removed from cathodic protection while immersed in plating bath, condition that occurs during pulse plating "off-time", t(off), Cu+ in plating soln. oxidizes Al from electrodeposits. Rate of displacement reaction is greatest for small values of t(off) but decreases as t(off) becomes longer, suggesting that Cu-richlayer forms on electrodeposits that blocks displacement reaction. Displacement reaction can be minimized by lowering Cu+ concn. at electrode surface through superimposed current during t(off), whose magnitude is comparable to limiting current for Cu+.

Galvanostatic Study of Electrocrystallisation of Binary Nickel Base Alloys. 1. Zn-Ni on Glassy C

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SURF Mechanistic study using linear sweep voltammetry on glassy carbon with galvanostatic & potentiostatic polarisation shows role of hydrogen evolution, with Tafel slopes plotted. H is seen as intermediate for Zn electrodep'n and dep'n of Zn-Ni alloy is preceded by dep'n of pure Zn. Cyclic voltammograms & Tafel data are shown. 11 refs.

Galvanotechnik (Zweite Auflage)

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Pt 1 covers ionic theory, e.mf. series of metals, electrochemical equivalents; cathode processes - the i-E curve, double layers, inhibitors, passivity, purity of electrodeposits, reversible & irreversible processes, overvoltages. Pt 2.Phenomenology of cathodic metal deposition: structure & morphology of dep'd metals. Effect of dep'n conditions on form of deposit. - grain size, hardness, internal stress, pitting, porosity; Pt 3, Applied Aspects: corrosion protection, adhesion, pretreatment of work. Specific metals - Cu, Ag, Au, Zn, Cd, Sn, Pb, Fe, Co, Ni, Cr, alloys. Test methods. Aluminium anodising; electropolishing.

Galvanotechnik: Grundlagen, Verfahren und Praxis einer Schluesseltechnologie; Electroplating - a Key Technology: Basic Principles, Processes and Practice 2nd Ed'n

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ISBN 978-3-446-41738-0. Ch. 1; Coating technologies; sputtering & evaporation, CVD, PVD, hard-facing; hot-fip galvanising (zinc & other metals), roll-coating & cladding, painting & organic coating, inorganic coating, low-friction coating, thermal spraying, flame spraying, plasma spraying, electroplating (various processes, various metals). Alloy & composite electrodeposits; conversion coatings, electroforming; applications, costs & economics; ecology & the environment.

Galvanotechnik: Grundlagen, Verfahren und Praxis einer Schluesseltechnologie; Electroplating - a Key Technology: Basic Principles, Processes and Practice 2nd Ed'n

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ISBN 978-3-446-41738-0. Ch. 4 Deposition of metallic coatings. Electroless plating (of metals, alloys, composites). Hard metals, dry or solid lubricants, thickness distribution. Electrodeposition: DC processes for metals & alloys, for brass, composites, sandwich coatings, thickness distribution. Pulse plating. Laser-induced plating.

Galvanotechnik: Grundlagen, Verfahren und Praxis einer Schluesseltechnologie; Electroplating - a Key Technology: Basic Principles, Processes and Practice 2nd Ed'n

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ISBN 978-3-446-41738-0. Ch. 2. Materials for plating. Atomic build-up, lattices and defects. twinning, grain boundaries, blisters, pores & porosity, cracks & cracking. Theoretical tensile strength, electrical & thermal conductivity. alloys, mixed crystals. Ferrous metals and steels. Aluminium & alloys, zinc & alloys. Amorphous polymers, crystalline polymers, electrically-conducting polymers. Methods for imparting conductivity with fillers or loading, doping. Thermal & time-dependant stability. ABS polymer.

Galvanotechnik: Grundlagen, Verfahren und Praxis einer Schluesseltechnologie; Electroplating - a Key Technology: Basic Principles, Processes and Practice 2nd Ed'n

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ISBN 978-3-446-41738-0 Ch. 3 Electrolytes for electrodeposition. Acidic, alkaline, neutral, ions & complexes, additives, brighteners, levelling agents, wetting agents. Electrolytic conductivity, throwing power (macro, micro); Electroless baths, complexants, accelerators, stabilisers, buffers. Deposition rates, analysis & process control. Electroless nickel, bath chemistry. Electroless copper. Bath chemistry.

Galvanotechnik: Grundlagen, Verfahren und Praxis einer Schluesseltechnologie; Electroplating - a Key Technology: Basic Principles, Processes and Practice 2nd Ed'n

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ISBN 978-3-446-41738-0 Chs. 5 & 6 Film formation at the atomistic level. Electrodeposition mechanisms, electrocrystallisation, interfaces, Nernst diffusion layer. Electric double-layer. DC, pulse plating. Helmholtz-Perrin model, Gouy Chapman model. Overvoltage, polarisation (concentration, diffusion, activation, crystallisation), Nucleation & growth. Nucleii types. Kossel-Stranski model. Texture types. Volmer-Weber growth model, other growth models. Whiskers & their formation. Diffusion & stress-controlled growth. Spiral growth. tin whiskers. In-situ methods for study of film growth Scanning probe microscopy, scanning tunnelling & atomic force microscopy. Through-hole contacting of printed circuit boards.

Galvanotechnik: Grundlagen, Verfahren und Praxis einer Schluesseltechnologie; Electroplating - a Key Technology: Basic Principles, Processes and Practice 2nd Ed'n

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ISBN 978-3-446-41738-0. Ch. 7. Measuring adhesion of metallic films. Metal-metal and metal-polymer adhesion. "Press-stud" theory, wetting theory, electrostatic theory. Test methods, qualitative, quantitative. Bend test, mandrel test, rub test, file test, crosshatch & hammer blow tests, cupping & electrolytic tests. Torsion & winding tests. Peel test. Cobalt barrel test, Ollard test, pull-off test, scratch test. NDT methods, ultrasonic, acoustic emission, ultrasound microscopy. Ch. 8 Thickness determination of metallic coatings. Definition as per DIN ISO EN 2064. Microscopy by cross-sectioning. Coulometric, STEP, eddy current, X-ray, continuous measurements, standard-free methods. In-situ, optipulse, effects of copper quality.

Galvanotechnik: Grundlagen, Verfahren und Praxis einer Schluesseltechnologie; Electroplating - a Key Technology: Basic Principles, Processes and Practice 2nd Ed'n

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ISBN 978-3-446-41738-0 Ch. 9. Analysis of metal film composition. Mass spectrometry, ion scatter spectrometry, (ISS) SIMS. Electron beam & related methods, Auger, scanning Auger, ESCA Photoelectron spectroscopy (incl. UV), XPS, EDX, wavelength dispersion methods. Ch. 10. Determining lattic structure of metallic films. Lattic types, indexing, holes. Ch. 11 Measurement of internal stress, Defects & their effect. Compressive & tensile. Internal stress, Types 1,2,3. Epitaxy effects. Methods: twin strip, spiral contractometer, disk tensometer, IS meter. In-situ methods. X-ray diffraction methods. Thermal post-treatment. Ch. 12. Determination of mechanical properties of metallic films. Elasticity, stress-strain curves. Shear limits. Relationship between pressure & tensile stress. Plastic behaviour, Hall-Petch relationship. Ductility & its measurement. Bend test, mandrel test, hydraulic bulge test, cupping test. Hardness & microhardness. Vickers, Knoop, indenter tests. Martens hardness. Work of deformation.

Galvanotechnik: Grundlagen, Verfahren und Praxis einer Schluesseltechnologie; Electroplating - a Key Technology: Basic Principles, Processes and Practice 2nd Ed'n

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SBN 978-3-446-41738-0 Ch. 13. Friction & wear of metallic coatings. Friction, coefficient of, solid-body friction, liquid friction, friction limits. Mixed friction, gas friction. Stribeck plot. Means of minimising friction. Wear, its measurement & units. Adhesive & abrasive wear, tribo-oxidation, surface scarring & grooving. Wear testing. Falex, Taber Abraser, crossed cylinders. Pin-on-disk. TOG test. Ch. 14 Determination of physical properties of metallic coatings.. Melting point, density, weight tests, pyknometer tests. Hydrostatic balance. Reflectivity. Electrical properties - conductivity & resistance. Electrical contact resistance. Coefficient of thermal expansion. Magnetic properties, Curie temperature. Wetting, surface energy, contact angle measurement. solderability, weldability, bondability. Ch. 15 Effect of metallic coatings on assemblies. Hydrogen embrittlement, fatigue strength & resistance Woehler plots. Porosity & its measurement, ferroxyl test, salt spray & Kesternich corrosion tests. Acrylamide gel test.

Galvatronic

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Computer process control of metal finishing baths incl. visualisation of flight bars. Numerous screen dumps are shown.

Galveco, a Solution for Hot-dip Galvanizing Reactive Steel

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Follow-on from work pres. at Intergalva (1997) by Union Miniere, where addition of tin reduced growth of iron-zinc intermetallics. The Galveco molten metal bath is successor to the Technigalva system. Comments on coating thickness, dross and ash generation, fluidity, wettability, surface appearance, corrosion resistance, economics, reduced zinc pick-up on steels. Numerous graphs etc on factors affecting coating thickness, viscosity, corrosion rates (of zinc-nickel & galveco) 2 refs

Galvo-mechanical tin plating of 300 series stainless steel self-tapping screws

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Title coating is solid dry lubricant to ease insertion of screws. Tin is used in pref. to cadmium because it is not toxic and because of the ease with which it is displaced from its salts in solution. The process is thus a mechanically-aided immersion coating or cementation

Gamma prime phase-containing nickel aluminide coating.

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An intermetallic composition suitable for use as an environmentally-protective coating on surfaces of components used in hostile thermal environments, including the turbine, combustor and augmentor sections of a gas turbine engine. The coating contains the gamma-prime (Ni3Al) nickel aluminide intermetallic phase and either the beta (NiAl) nickel aluminide intermetallic phase or the gamma solid solution phase. The coating has an average aluminum content of 14 to 30 atomic percent and an average platinum-group metal content of at least 1 to less than 10 atomic percent, the balance of the coating being nickel, one or more of chromium, silicon, tantalum, and cobalt, optionally one or more of hafnium, yttrium, zirconium, lanthanum, and cerium, and incidental impurities.