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Key factors determining the development of two morphologies of plasma electrolytic coatings on an Al–Cu–Li alloy in aluminate electrolytes.

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SURF The porosity within plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) coatings strongly affects their properties, such as the wear resistance. Two typical types of coatings, i.e. bi-layered coatings with large internal pores, which show low wear resistance, and single-layered coatings with excellent wear performance, have been found following PEO of aluminium alloys under pulsed current regimes with an aluminate electrolyte. In this paper, the mechanisms of formation of the different coatings are investigated and discussed based on a thorough investigation of PEO of an Al–Cu–Li alloy using systematic variations of 1000 Hz pulsed current waveforms and electrolyte concentration. Both parameters have important roles in determining the structure of the resultant coatings. The coatings formed in a dilute electrolyte, containing 5 g*l- 1 NaAlO2, were bi-layered and contained both large pores and pancake structures irrespective of the application of a negative pulse. In contrast, the application of negative current pulse favored the formation of single-layered coatings that contained fewer pancake structures in an electrolyte 32 g*l- 1 NaAlO2. A more concentrated electrolyte, containing 56 g l-*1 NaAlO2, resulted in relatively compact, single-layered coatings independently of a negative current pulse. Similar observations for the coating morphologies were made if the alloy was replaced by high purity aluminium and also for the alloy when the frequency was reduced to 100 Hz. Two different models for the growth of single- and bi-layered coatings are proposed.

Key factors in UV curing process - relationship of exposure conditions & measurement in UV process design & process control. Pt 1. Introduction

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3 main elements in a UV cure system are lamps, formulation & the nature of the product. UV curing is usual linear, flood (area) or spot. Solvent based formulations are contrasted with UV cure.. UV powder is discussed as are the optical characteristics of material to be cured. The role of absorbance is emphasised. Spectral absorbance, wavelength and optical thickness (with differences in absorption between top and bottom layers, are all considered.

Key factors in UV curing process. Relationship of exposure conditions & measurement in UV process design & process control. Pt 3. Measurement & control

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Contrast is made between process design & process control, tables list objectives in each case. Overview of radiometric instruments (dosimeters & spectrometers) & their limitations. 10 refs

Key factors in UV paint curing process - relationship of exposure conditions & measurement of UV process design & process control. Pt 2. lamp systems

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Overview of lamp types, mercury, microwave powered, and reflector design & focus (sketch shows elliptical mirror with ray pattern). Table lists peak irradiance values, and power, with effects of lamp geometry on peaks is shown. Histograms show typical spectral outputs from various lamp types. Variable lamp power, irradiance profiles & energy outputs are discussed. Value of infra-red heat energy as supplement to UV is noted. Effect of infrared on various substrate materials, and use of dichroic reflectors concludes article (Pt 1 in April issue)

Key features in carburising & carbonitriding

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Emphasises importance of atmosphere control and instruments for so doing incl. meas't of carbon potential.

Key guidelines for ultrasonic cleaning equipment and process performance

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Question and answer format is used to cover frequently asked questions by users or potential users of this equipment. Topics include power requirement, possible damage to electronic and delicate components, correct sizing of equipment and fall off in cleaning performance.

Key issues in phosphating

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Notes the importance of a correctly maintained solution. Comments on zinc, iron & manganese phosphate baths, table lists typical bath compositions with comments on phosphate chemistry. Table lists coatability of a wide range of carbon & stainless steels. Disc'n of cleaning prior to phosphating with table listing cleaning chemistries & results of spray washing using chelated caustic soda. Table lists process variables for spray or immersion phosphating (Mn, Fe or Zn). Genera;l comments on outcomes such as crystal size. 4 refs

Key issues in plasma-source ion implantation

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SURF Plasma-source ion implantation (PSII) is scaleable, non-line-of-sight method for surface modification of materials. Considers 3 issues addressed before wide-scale commercialization: (1) implant conformality, (2) ion sources, and (3) secondary electron emission. To ensure uniform implanted dose over complex shapes, ion sheath thickness must be sufficiently small. This places demands on ion sources and pulsed-power supplies. Another limitation is availability of additional ion species beyond B, C, N, and O. Possible solutions are use of metal arc vaporisation sources and plasma discharges in high vapour-pressure organometallic precursors. Finally, secondary electron emission presents potential efficiency and X-ray hazard issue, since for many metallurgic applications emission coeff. can be as large as 20. Techniques to suppress secondary electron emission are discussed.

Key operation points and specifications of chromium plating for die cast aluminium cylinder.

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Key parameters in selecting an organic solvent

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A range of solvents over and above the chlorinated hydrocarbons are available, with different cleaning powers & other properties. Selecting the right one depends on type of soil, degree of desired cleanliness, but also the type of plant (which may already be in place). Solvents are categorised by their chemical type, key parameters are listed with a view to identifying the most suitable type.

Key peripherals in electrocoat

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A range of membrane technologies underpin efficient electrocoat painting and the maintenance of the bath, incl. reverse osmosis, ultrafiltration, dialysis. Plants of each type are shown, their performance described.

Key points for environmental impact assessment of electroplating construction projects.

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According to the characteristics of environmental impact of electroplating construction projects, some issues needing attention during the assessment of environmental impact of electroplating construction projects were discussed in the following aspects: (1) site selection and general layout; (2) prevention and control of wastewater and waste gas pollution; (3) prevention and control of soil and groundwater pollution; (4) cleaner production; and (5) environmental risk prevention.

Key points for the control of alkaline zinc-nickel alloy electroplating process.

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The process flow of alkaline Zn-Ni alloy electroplating and the key points for bath control were described. It is pointed out that the pretreatment effectiveness should be "four noes" - no grease, no rust, no dust, and no oxide film. The mass ratios of NaOH to ZnO and Zn*2+ to Ni*2+ in bath are key factors affecting the nickel content in coating. The operation procedure of Hull cell test for bath adjustment and thekey points for on-site maintenance were introduced.

Key properties of electrodeposited copper tin alloys in the electronics industry

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Key standards in metal finishing. Part 2.

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Exhaustive listing of DIN/EN, DIS, ISO standards and guidelines with their dates, classified as: test methods for surfaces and coatings and their properties (incl. corrosion, wear, thickness, roughness), environmental standars, environmental technology, health & safety at work. Effluent & waste disposal & recycling; quality assurance.