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344 results. per page « 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 »

KI Report No. 1997:1 Methods of analysis for characterisation of corrosion products

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SEM, XPS, microbalance, optical microscopy, infra-red & cathodic reduction are some methods used and described. 16 refs (Swedish)

Killing hot water storage tank bacteria - by additional heat derived from inert electrode.

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Hot-water storage tank, whose jacket has an inlet feeder and outlet connector, kills bacteria by the application of heat from electric current flowing between an electrode, whose surface at least is an inert material, e.g. Ti, Nb, Ta with a PE or other noble metal passivating coating, while the counter-electrode may be the end of a component housing the inert electrode. As an alternative, the protective electrode is of cathodic-protective type, with current flow phases controlled by a potentiostat to provide max. flow rates of 100-500 mA for periods of 100-300 microsecs., at which gas emission is not excessive. Other possible electrode shapes include a bar descending vertically in the tank or a flat spiral near the tank floor. Does not require use of metals with oligodynamic properties.

Kinematic analysis and measurement of temperature rise on a pad in chemical mechanical planarization

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JES

Kinetic & electrochemical study of gold cementation onto mild steel from acidic thiourea solutions

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Rate data & Arrhenius plots are shown with Pourbaix (E(h)-pH) plot for Au-Fe-TU. Polarisation plots (anodic, cathodic), Evans diagram & effect of sulphuric acid conc'n on reduction of (AuTU(+))2 are shown. 26 refs

Kinetic & Electrochemical Study of Zincate Immersion Process for aluminium

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JAE Study of zincating process used prior to electrodeposition onto Al. RDE was used in parametric study of Zn conc'n, agitation (rotation rate), temperature, NaOH conc'n. Reaction orders &activation energy data were found. Data was interpreted using Evans' diagrams & mixed potential meas'ts. 17 refs

Kinetic & mass-spectrometer study of volatile components from electroless nickel-boron

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PROT Study to determine what volatile species are released on heat treatment (up to 700°C) of Ni-B with 6 to 21% At B and perhaps sublime on the outer surface. In all cases, moisture & oxides of B were found sublimed on the surface. At 600°C, NiB3 was found.

Kinetic & mechanistic studies of anodic film formation on niobium in 0.05M picric acid & 0.001M sodium phosphate

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Anodic oxide formation in picric acid with & w/o phosphate addition is reported. The latter was found to improve kinetics of film formation. Radio-labelled phosphate ions were used to follow the reaction, Migration of anionic impurities & accumulation of active phosphate in the oxide inner layer are reported. Graphs show weight, voltage, capacitance vs. time. 20 refs

Kinetic analysis of direct current field enhanced salt bath nitriding.

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SFEN A novel rapid salt bath nitriding technology based on normal salt bath nitriding was primarily developed by additionally applying a direct current field (DCF) of 7·5?V between the treated samples, and the corresponding kinetics was investigated. The results showed that DCF could significantly enhance the nitriding efficiency, shorten the holding duration and decrease the treatment temperature. Meanwhile, the diffusion coefficient of nitrogen was increased about two times, and the activation energy was decreased from 184 to 159kJ mol*-1. The main enhancement mechanism was discussed as well.

Kinetic and Morphological Investigation of Cobalt Iron Alloy Electrodeposition in the Presence of Organic Additives

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SURF The use of organic additives is widespread int he manufacturing of thin films using electrodeposition. Common Additives like saccharin (SAC) are used as levelling and brightening agents. A comparative study of the influence of organic additives containing a similar saccharin molecular structure on CoFe alloy electrodeposition is reported in order to obtain information about the kinetics of the cathodic process and the morphology of the deposits. The study was based on an electrochemical investigation using steady-state polarization measurements, coupled with scanning electron microscopy and X-ray dispersive analysis of the CoFe deposits. The composition, the current efficiency and the partial current densities of the CoFe alloy were determined in order to study the influence of SAC, phthalimide (PHTA) and another additive containing sulfur element: o-toluene sulfonamide (oTOL) on the CoFe deposition from sulfate and chloride electrolytes at pH 3. Experimental results indicate that saccharin influence strongly the electrode kinetic contrary to oTOL and PHTA. The morphology of the CoFe deposits depends on used organic additive. It was also noted that the presence of saccharin results in smoother, more compact and more levelled deposits as compared to PHTA or oTOL.

Kinetic and morphological investigation of copper electrodeposition from sulfate electrolytes in the presence of an additive based on ethoxyacetic alcohol and triethyl-benzyl-ammonium chloride

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MCP Comparative study of influence of new additive (IT-85), based on ethoxyacetic alcohol and triethyl-benzyl-ammonium chloride, and thiourea on Cu electrodeposition from acidic sulfate solns. has been performed to obtain information about kinetics of cathodic process. In spite of different chemical nature, both additives were efficient as levelling agents, leading to fine-grained cathodic deposits. Both additives have pronounced inhibiting effect on Cu2+ discharge, strongest inhibition being observed for thiourea. Induction period related to slow nucleation, increasing with additive concn., was clearly put on evidence on polarization curves, for both additives.

Kinetic and structural consequences derived from aging effects on electrochemically formed layers

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(91:219304) The influence of different aging processes on electrochem. reactions is studied. Three main types of aging processes are described: open-circuit aging, potentiostatic aging, and potentiodynamic aging. The data derived from different electrode processes show that the films are composite systems themselves. They involve various non-equilibrated species which accordingly react to attain either a single equil. configuration or a configuration involving equil. among the various surface species. Surface restructuring and cluster-type reactions are important contributions toward understanding the dynamic behavior of electrochem. interfaces.

Kinetic and transport modelling of the metallorganic chemical vapor deposition of indium phosphide from trimethylindium and phosphine and comparison with experiments

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JES

Kinetic Behavior of Zinc Electrode in Alkali: Mechanisms of Electrodeposition and Anodic Dissolution with the Presence of an Inhibiting Interfacial Layer.

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FR9006991 SIGLE DSC

Kinetic Correlations in Codeposition of Molybdenum Iron and Molybdenum Nickel Alloys

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JAE Two title alloys were dep'd from citrate sol'ns using a rotating disc electrode. Kinetic study with polarisation data elicits the role of mass-transport. 11 refs.

Kinetic curves for the acid pickling of scale coated steel

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1st stage of process involves removal of external layers of scale without contact between acid and metal surface. 2nd stage starts from moment of first contact of acid and metal. When scale particles have been completely removed 3rd state starts, during which metal layer is dissolved, which is impoverished, during annealing stage, in certain elements (especially non-metallic elements). 4th stage starts after dissolution of impoverished layer. Stage 2 is especially important for pickling process, and during this period particles of scale and 'open' metal are present on surface. Feasibility of describing stage 2 by mathematical equation is considered.