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Nano-particles alter the world of surfaces

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Broad overview of coatings incorporating nano-particles and the special properties they confer such as non-stick, self-cleaning (Lotus effect) non-fingermarking coatings. Both wet processes such as sol-gel and vacuum processes such as PVD or CVD can be used to create patterned surfaces.

Nano-particles alter the world of surfaces

Relevancy:  

Broad overview of coatings incorporating nano-particles and the special properties they confer such as non-stick, self-cleaning (Lotus effect) non-fingermarking coatings. Both wet processes such as sol-gel and vacuum processes such as PVD or CVD can be used to create patterned surfaces.

Nano-Particles Dispersion Effect on Ni/Al2O3 Composite Coatings.

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MCP Nano-Alumina particles (80 nm) are easily agglomerated into larger particles in a nickel sulfamate bath with an average diameter of about 1109 nm. This leads to low alumina content in the composite coating. In this study, the diameter of alumina agglomerates was reduced with the decrease in electrolyte concentration. Alumina agglomeration was reduced to 178 nm at a bath concentration of 0.20 M nickel ions under 5 Wl-*1, with 40 min ultrasonic energy treatment. Effective alumina particle dispersion in the electrolyte solution creates more opportunities for loose and strong adsorption of alumina particles onto the electrode. The Ni/Al2O3 composite coating was prepared with electrolyte concentration variations under typical ectrochemical conditions. The alumina particle volume content in this composite coating was increased from 8.37 vol.% to a maximum value of 26.78 vol.%. The homogeneity of the composite coating is promoted with effective dispersion.

Nano-particles for optimum coatings

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Silica nano-particles applied in sol-gel mode improve adhesive properties. However particle surface must first be modified to allow wetting.

Nano-particles in coatings

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Overview of composite coatings based on nano-particle incorporation, e.g scratch resistant coatings on spectacles.

Nano-patterning of surfaces

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Nano-porous "Raney Gold"

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By leaching silver from a Au-Ag alloy, a nanoporous surface structure remains, which though not itself catalytically active, can be coated with an active metal to provide a high-area catalyst e.g for sensors.``````

Nano-powder coating using cold plasma

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Plastics, metals or glass are among substrates that can be coated with this new energy-efficient process at rates up to 150 meter/min. Coatings can be virtually any material available in powder form, so most metals, glass, ceramics, polymers, thermoplastics. In printed circuit board manufacture, tracks can be formed, or salts applied as fluxes. The powder feed is computer-steered, so allowing patterns etc to be formed, metallising of non-conductors, EMI shielding, solar cell manufacture are among applications described. www.reinhausen-plasma.com

Nano-scale characterisation of surfaces & interfaces

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ISBN 3527-29838-X. Describes use of STM, AFM and other non-contact techniques and their use to manipulate atoms on a surface. Includes tribology (nano) surface forces, electrochemistry at solid-liquid interface etc.

Nano-Scale Surface Processing of Perylene Microcrystals with Scanning Near-Field Optical Microscope and the Time-Dependent Reshaping of Processed Surfaces.

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Nano-Scale, Multi-Functional Coatings in the Material System B-C-N-H

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SURF Protective and functional coatings for tools and components are nowadays required in an increasingly demanding and sophisticated profile with respect to the desired mechanical, tribological, physical or chemical properties. Frequently, the necessary requirements can only be realized by multi-functional coatings through a nano-scale thin-film design. CVD- and PVD-coatings in the material system B-C-N-H are known for their outstanding properties. Depending on the materials selection within this system and detailed coating design, extremely high hardness, low friction and excellent chemical stability can be obtained. Here it is shown that coatings with well tailored properties can be achieved according to special coating concepts, in particular through multilayers and nanocomposites, in conjunction with the control of surface processes. Several designs and optimization examples for anticipated nano-scale multi-functional coatings will be presented, showing the fundamental significance of the underlying knowledge, i.e. the interdependent relationships between the constitution and microstructure of the coating systems, the energy and momentum input of the processing particles during nucleation and growth of the coatings, the mechanical properties, and the operation performance.

Nano-scaled controllability of microstructure of magnetic thin film media by applying ultra clean sputtering process

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Nano-silve toxicity: ions, nanoparticles, or both?

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The work of a Swiss research team that found a new way to look at nano-silver's mechanisms in live algae, which may be a stand in for many plants, is summarised. Cysteine ligands that bind free silver were used as a tool to separate the exposure to nano-silver or free ions. The algae, Chlamydromonas reinhardtii, was then exposed to silver ions and silver nanoparticles or to both kinds of silver with cysteine present. It was determined that the nano-silver was an indirect source of toxicity, because the silver ions measured in the experimental nanoparticle suspensions were not enough to explain the toxicity. Instead, the data indicate that silver nanoparticles are a continued source of ions as they interact with algae.

Nano-silver pesticides.

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The activities of the US Environmental Protection Agency in relation to nanoscale silver particles are discussed. It is noted that antimicrobials are considered as pesticides and fall under the Federal Insecticide , Fungicide & Rodenticide Act (FIFRA). The EPA has to determine what data it needs to assess potential environmental, health and safety risks, and to decide the best ways to obtain the data. Under the Act the EPA has authority to require manufacturers to provide whatever data is deems necessary. The findings of a four day meeting of the FIFRA scientific advisory panel are discussed, which considered whether data for non-nanoscale forms of silver should be allowed to substitute for data for nano-silver and whether data for one nano-silver product may be allowed to substitute for data for another product. The EPA is considering three main approaches, the first being to evaluate industry's claim that there is limited exposure potential, the second focusing on metabolism studies, and the third treating nano-silver particles as new active ingredients. Several and proposed nanosilver products are described.

Nano-Structure and Process of Production thereof.

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Process for producing a nano-structure enables control of pore diameters and the pore intervals by film formation conditions. The process produces a nano-structure of an aluminium-silicon-germanium mixed film containing silicon and germanium at a content of 20 to 70 atom % relative to aluminium, the mixed film being constituted of a matrix composed mainly of silicon and germanium in a composition ratio of SiXGe1-X(0<=X<=1), and cylindrical portions mainly composed of aluminium having a diameter of not larger 30 nm in the matrix. In the process, the mixed film is formed at a film-forming rate of not high than 150 nm/min.