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Oblique Rotating Barrel Electrochemical Reactor for Removal of Copper Ions from Wastewater.

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JAE

Obscure beetle scales are whiter than white.

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Work by a UK university is discussed, involving a beetle that could teach how to produce brilliant white ultrathin coatings and materials. The Cyphochilus beetle has a highly unusual brilliant white shell and has evolved its brilliant whiteness using a unique surface structure. At one 200th of a millimetre thick, its scales are ten times thinner than a human hair. Industrial mineral coatings, such as those used in some paints, would need to be twice as thick to be white. According to ISO accredited measurements for whiteness and brightness, the beetle is much whiter and brighter than milk and the average human tooth, which are both considerably thicker. Electron microscopy imaging was used to investigate the beetle's body, head and legs and they were found to be covered in long flat scales, which have highly random internal three-dimensional structures. These irregular structures are the key to its uniquely effective light scattering. By balancing the size of the structures with the spacing between them, they scatter white light far more efficiently than the fibres in white paper or the enamel of teeth.

Observation and Analysis of the Tunnel Formed on D.C. Etched Highly Ordered Aluminium - Dependence of the Tunnel Shape on the Electrolyte Composition.

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The observation of the tunnel formed on D.C. etched {100} highly ordered aluminum and analysis of the tunnel shape have been performed by using the oxide replica method. The tunnel widths (W1) were measured as a function of the tunnel depth (li) for the tunnels obtained by D.C. etching in AlCl3, HCl + AlCl3, NaCl + AlCl3, H2SO4 + AlCl3, LiCl, NaCl and KCl aqueous solutions. As has already been reported regarding HCl solution, W1 tapered exponentially with li, i.e., log (W1/W10)=a.li, where W10 is the tunnel width at the depth of 10µm from the tunnel entrance, in all solutions examined in this study. In HCl + AlCl3 solution, Wl tapered rapidly with li compared to the case of HCl or AlCl;3 solutions. The rapid decrease in W1 with li, in HCl + AlCl3 solutions was considered to be caused by the increase in the concentration of Al*3+ and Cl- ions in the tunnel, followed by the hindrance of electrochemical dissolution of Al. On the other hand, for the tunnel obtained in LiCl NaCl or KCFl solutions. W1 tapered with li, at the same rate. It was considered that Li*+, Na*+, and K*+ ions play the same role in the formation of the tunnel.

Observation and Analysis of the Tunnel Formed on D.C. Etched Highly Ordered Aluminium - Dependence of the Tunnel Shape on the Electrolyte Composition.

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The observation of the tunnel formed on D.C. etched {100} highly ordered aluminium and analysis of the tunnel shape have been performed by using the oxide replica method. The tunnel widths (W1) were measured as a function of the tunnel depth (li) for the tunnels obtained by D.C. etching in AlCl3, HCl + AlCl3, NaCl + AlCl3, H2SO4 + AlCl3, LiCl, NaCl and KCl aqueous solutions. As has already been reported regarding HCl solution, W1 tapered exponentially with li, i.e., log (W1/W10)=a.li, where W10 is the tunnel width at the depth of 10µm from the tunnel entrance, in all solutions examined in this study. In HCl + AlCl3 solution, Wl tapered rapidly with li compared to the case of HCl or AlCl;3 solutions. The rapid decrease in W1 with Li, in HCl + AlCl3 solutions was considered to be caused by the increase in the concentration of Al*3+ and Cl- ions in the tunnel, followed by the hindrance of electrochemical dissolution of Al. On the other hand, for the tunnel obtained in LiCl NaCl or KCl solutions. W1 tapered with li, at the same rate. It was considered that Li*+, Na*+, and K*+ ions play the same role in the formation of the tunnel.

Observation and modeling of a-NiPtAl and Kirkendall void formations during interdiffusion of a Pt coating with a gamma-(Ni-13Al) alloy at high temperature.

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Observation of a compound layer with very low friction coefficient in ion- nitrided martensitic 410 stainless steel

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Observation of adsorbed organic molecules by in situ STM operated in liquid.

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Observation of barrier layer during electrolytic colouring of anodised aluminium

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Study of interfacial impedance, linked to EM study of morphology. Graph shows impedance changes vs. colouring time at 100, 200, 1000Hz.EM images are shown. The coloured barrier layer film is twice as thick as its uncoloured analogue. 11 refs

Observation of boron nitride thin film delamination due to humidity

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SURF The effect of humidity on the delamination of boron nitride thin films on silicon substrates was investigated by measuring changes of the mean compressive stress within the films, as well as by light microscopic observations of the evolution of film delamination patterns under varying ambient humidity. The observed propagation velocities of delaminations and the resulting patterns of film buckles strongly depend on humidity. The film buckle patterns exhibit peculiar features which cannot be explained purely mechanically. The observation of separate film buckles in the immediate vicinity of large connected buckle patterns suggest that film adherence loss occurs by diffusion and chemical reaction of water at the film/substrate interface, possibly accompanied by volume expansion. On the other hand, the observed adherent film parts within buckle patterns, which sustain large humidity exposures, are proposed to be due to sufficiently rapid out-diffusion of reaction products, preventing adherence loss.

Observation of boron nitride thin film delamination due to humidity

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SURF The effect of humidity on the delamination of boron nitride thin films on silicon substrates was investigated by measuring changes of the mean compressive stress within the films, as well as by light microscopic observations of the evolution of film delamination patterns under varying ambient humidity. The observed propagation velocities of delaminations and the resulting patterns of film buckles strongly depend on humidity. The film buckle patterns exhibit peculiar features which cannot be explained purely mechanically. The observation of separate film buckles in the immediate vicinity of large connected buckle patterns suggest that film adherence loss occurs by diffusion and chemical reaction of water at the film/substrate interface, possibly accompanied by volume expansion. On the other hand, the observed adherent film parts within buckle patterns, which sustain large humidity exposures, are proposed to be due to sufficiently rapid out-diffusion of reaction products, preventing adherence loss.

Observation of CVD diamond using AFM and FE-SEM

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Observation of deep dislocation structures and "long-range effect" in ion-implanted delta-iron

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SURF Results of investigations of "long-range effect" by ion implantation into delta-Fe are presented. C, Fe, W, Hf and Ar ions were implanted into alpha-Fe in continuous and pulse-periodic regimes. Ion energy varied in range 40-150 keV and irradiation dose varied in range 1 x 10E15 to 1 x 10E18 ions/sq.cm. Dislocation structures are formed in near-surface layer of pure metals by ion implantation. Thickness of near-surface layers with dislocation structure induced by ion implantation is in range 20-100µm. Stress measurements and calculations in near-surface layers by ion implantation show that stresses are considerably greater than yield strength. Stresses result in plastic deformation of near-surface layers of irradiated materials. Plastic deformation is main reason for dislocation structure development.

Observation of failure mode of metal/resin bonding interface by electrolytic solution method.

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Observation of gliding arc surface treatment.

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Observation of high-temperature phase transformation in the aluminide Cr-Mo steel using EBSD.

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