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Observations on chromate conversion coatings from a sol-gel perspective

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Discussion of sol-gel processes and the extent to which CCC (chromate conversion coating) might be one such, linking the two concepts, with SEM's showing alodine process. The various stages on sol-gel incl. gelation, drying etc are treated in detail and the scope for sol-gel to create new, chromate-free coatings is considered. 9 refs

Observations on chromate conversion coatings from a sol/gel perspective

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Mechanism is proposed for formation of chromate conversion coatings on Al consistent with sol/gel chemistry principles. Conclusions illustrate important considerations for developing non-chromate conversion coatings.

Observations on Electropolishing of Copper

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Electrochemical study in phosphoric acid solution studies role of compact solid film formed on the copper. Potentiodynamic & capacitance data are shown. 8 refs

Observations on Growth Mechanism of Hard Anodic Coatings on Aluminium.

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duplicate of paper in TIMF 41 (l964) but with disc'n pp 317-320.

Observations on paper "Sulphur incorporation in electrodeposition of copper from sulphate electrolytes & meas't of ionic radius in formation of monomolecular layers"

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Note on paper by Houtermans, Vincent & Wagner..

Observations on porosity in precious metal plating

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Means of minimising porosity to allow thinner films to be used, esp. in context of electrical connectors such as palladium nickel & hard gold. Test & meas't methods are reviewed. Substrate quality & surface finish is starting point. Cleaning & polishing incl. electropolishing and good interlayers are essential. Tests incl. electrography, described in detail, and gas tests, e.g nitric acid vapour. Porosity of Au & PdNi are compared, laminar structure in the latter can be beneficial. Micrographs show laminar & columnar deposits. Disc'n of flowing mixed gas chamber tests with related standards noted. Standards for hard gold & PdNi deposits are set out in some detail with tests required. Rapid pore closure additives are described with histo showing their effectiveness. Pretreatments & strike platings are noted. 22 refs

Observations on the uniformity of immersion tin coatings on copper

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SURF The development of chemical tin coatings by a replacement reaction Cu + Sn*2+ +Sn from hydrochloric acid based and methanesulphonic acid based baths on the inner surface of a copper tube was studied by transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy in order to explore the factors influencing the uniformity of tin coatings. Despite the fact that tin coatings develop in different ways in studied baths, uniform coatings are equally plated from both these baths when the substrate surface is clean and smooth. However, differences in the surface-sensitivity, i.e. the dependence of coating uniformity on the substrate surface condition, of plating baths materialise when plated on irregular or improperly cleaned substrate. A hydrochloric acid based bath may yield non-uniform coatings on irregular or improperly cleaned substrate, since large-sized grains develop immediately after coating initiation. These large grains are suggested to orientate to follow the contrours of impurity particles or surface irregularities introducing misalignment in grain columns and, thus, non-uniformity into coatings. In contrast, a methanesulphonic acid based bath is still able to produce uniform tin coatings on contaminated or rough surfaces, as the coating is proposed to accommodate to substrate surface irregularities by the build-up of a nanocrystalline zone at the early stages of tin coating deposition. Sulfur-containing elements in this methanesulphonic acid based plating bath play the central role in the nanocrystalline layer formation.

Observations on the uniformity of immersion tin coatings on copper

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SURF The development of chemical tin coatings by a displacement reaction Cu + Sn*2+ +Sn from hydrochloric acid based and methanesulphonic acid based baths on the inner surface of a copper tube was studied by transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy in order to explore the factors influencing the uniformity of tin coatings. Despite the fact that tin coatings develop in different ways in studied baths, uniform coatings are equally plated from both these baths when the substrate surface is clean and smooth. However, differences in the surface-sensitivity, i.e. the dependence of coating uniformity on the substrate surface condition, of plating baths materialise when plated on irregular or improperly cleaned substrate. A hydrochloric acid based bath may yield non-uniform coatings on irregular or improperly cleaned substrate, since large-sized grains develop immediately after coating initiation. These large grains are suggested to orientate to follow the contrours of impurity particles or surface irregularities introducing misalignment in grain columns and, thus, non-uniformity into coatings. In contrast, a methanesulphonic acid based bath is still able to produce uniform tin coatings on contaminated or rough surfaces, as the coating is proposed to accommodate to substrate surface irregularities by the build-up of a nanocrystalline zone at the early stages of tin coating deposition. Sulfur-containing elements in this methanesulphonic acid based plating bath play the central role in the nanocrystalline layer formation.

Observations on zinc electrodeposition from acid electrolytes

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Authors refer to earlier work where electrodeposition of zinc & copper was studied at vibrating cathode. This work is here continued, graphs show current efficiency & polarisation curves in sulphuric acid electrolyte, with co-evolution of hydrogen also reported. Vibration gives rise to small increase in Zn dep'n current efficiency, both electrode reactions are depolarised. 15 refs. In German.

Obtaining acid and metal from spent pickling solutions

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Obtaining an Improved Bond between an Electroplated Coating and Casting.

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High-strength, wear-resistant housings for Wankel type rotary engines are made of a cast core which is then coated with a carbide-cont'g layer for improved adhesion. Typically this might be electroplated nickel matrix with silicon carbide 2nd phase. Copper is plated over this and the whole immersed in molten aluminium.

Obtaining cobalt multilayers by programme controlled pulse current

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Title method may be used to form alternating layers of h.c.p and f.c.c structure. X-ray diffraction plots are shown as are metallographic cross-sections. Pulse regime is sketched. 9 refs

Obtaining composite oxidic coatings on the surface of aluminum and alloys thereof.

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Obtaining consistency in paint spraybooth operation

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Pt 2 in series reviews sludge water & air exhaust sub-systems, conventional chemical detackification and a novel approach using emulsion chemistry. Modifications discussed incl. supplemental mist elimination, sludge pit mods. Discussion of costs for implementing these changes with benefits incl. consistent scrubber performance, air movement energy savings.

Obtaining hard amorphous carbon layers using a benzene discharge

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Hard amorphous carbon layers were produced using a triode type unit with a dc discharge and a benzene plasma. The plasma properties were investigated using Langmuir probes.