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Sacrificial Plastic Mold with Electroplatable Base
A sacrificial plastic mold having an electroplatable backing is provided. One embodiment consists of the infusion of a softened or molten thermoplastic through a porous metal substrate (sheet, screen, mesh or foam) and into the features of a microscale molding tool contacting the porous metal substrate. Upon demolding, the porous metal substrate will be embedded within the thermoplastic and will project a plastic structure with features determined by the mold tool. This plastic structure, in turn, provides a sacrificial plastic mould mechanically bonded to the porous metal substrate which provides a conducting support suitable for electroplating either contiguous or non-contiguous metal replicates. After electroplating and lapping, the sacrificial plastic can be dissolved to leave the desired metal structure bonded to the porous metal substrate. Optionally, the electroplated structures may be debonded from the porous substrate by selective dissolution of the porous substrate or a coating thereon.
Sacrificial stop layer and end point for metal CMP
Metal plug metallization method using sacrificial titanium nitride layer as chemomechanical polishing stop to protect oxide insulating layer from damage. Opening is etched through to semiconductor structure and glue layer is deposited within opening. Sacrificial layer is followed by barrier layer.
Safe handling of solvents
Describes handling of cleaning & degreasing solvents using gas-tight, sealed metal drums ("Eco-Per Safety System") as source of solvent, with similar means of returning spent solvent to mfr for reprocessing. Liquid transfer by means of pump, minimising exposure to atmosphere.
Safe & Cost-Efficient Method for Stripping Rejected Parts
Broad survey examines chemical stripping, use of molten salt bath, incineration, hand sanding, abrasive & plastic media blasting. Tables summarise plastic media properties &applications and show compressed air consumption. Both paint & powder coatings are covered.
Safe aero engine cleaning without use of "Per"
Note on cleaning procedures at Messrs MTU where "per" has been abolished, and halogen-free solvents (hydrocarbons) are now used. The benefits (apart from ecological) are noted, not least that titanium must not be contacted with Per, since the chlorine atom splits off and stress-cracking corrosion results. Photos show plant.
Safe alternative to caustic soda
Neutralac is a proprietary lime slurry whose advantages over caustic soda are set out, with some case studies of effluent treatment such as hexavalent chromium, reduced to trivalent by Na metabisulphite (reaction time is pH dependent), then dosed with aluminium reagent & neutralised with Neutralac. Advantages over lime suspensions (as opposed to slurry) are noted.
Safe Chemical Cleaning
Organic acids in chelating agents for chemical cleaning of Cu and steel surfaces in boilers and chemical process equipment are compared, including EDTA salts ammoniated ethylene diamine, citric acid, hydroxyacetic acid and sulphamic acid. Example formulations, physical properties and process descriptions are presented. Gluconic acid NH4 bifluoride, acetic and formic acid are discussed as common additives to cleaning formulations. Safety and disposal methods for spent solutions are mentioned.
Safe chemical cleaning
Weaker organic acids and chelating agents are less toxic, less dangerous to handle and easier to dispose of than mineral acids. EDTA used with formic or citric acid, or with non-ionic wetting agent, is used in soln., foam or spray form, often at higher temps., citric acid has similar chelating ability. Hydroyxacetic acid is often used with formic acid. Sulphamic acid, like citric acid, is useful for stainless steel, as is gluconic acid; oxalic acid acts as pH controller and chelant.
Safe cleaning without "per"
Describes use of automatic parts cleaning and drying machine (Roll, Mhlacker) at Alusingen.
Commercialisation of conductive polymer technology is discussed. Developments have enabled polyaniline to be dispersed in organic paints to form anticorrosive coatings for railway bridges, chemical plant, ocean-going container vessels, etc.
Safe Drying of Organic Coatings
Photos & sketches of drying ovens with or without catalytic after burners. Graph shows explosion limits and process economics are discussed. 4 refs.
Safe guarding electroplated airborne components
Focus on hydrogen embrittlement for plated aircraft components, with case histories of past failures. Test procedures are reviewed, such as notched bend bar. Table lists 24 stages in overhaul of fighter aircraft landing gear component. Procedures to minimise H embrittlement or remove it by baking, are discussed. 17 refs
Safe handling of adhesives & sealants
Overview of adhesive & bonding compounds and the operations in which they are used, and the health hazards they present, to skin, inhalation etc. 2 refs
Safe Handling of Cyanide in Metal Finishing Operations
Review of CN chemistry as it relates to safety, antidotes, means of its ingestion, means of handling & disposing of it.
Safe handling of paint components
Discussion of modern methods for storing, handling, metering or dosing the liquid components of paints, using weighing and volumetric techniques.