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Ultra-microhardness testing procedure with Vickers indenter

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SURF Depth-sensing indentation equipment is widely used for evaluation of the hardness and Young's modulus of materials. The depth resolution of this technique allows the use of ultra-low loads. However, aspects related to the determination of the contact area under indentation should be cautiously considered when using this equipment. These are related to the geometrical imperfections of the tip, the diamond pyramidal punch and the formation of pileup or the presence of sink-in, which alter the shape and size of the indent. These and other aspects, such as the thermal drift of the equipment and the scattering at the zero indentation depth position related to surface finishing,are discussed in this work. A study concerning the hardness and the Young's modulus results determined by Vickers indentation on different materials was performed. Samples of fused silica, BN7 glass, aluminium, copper and mild steel (for which the values of Young's modulus were previously known) were tested using indentation loads in the range 10-1000 mN. Moreover, two methods are proposed for performing the indentation geometrical calibration of the contact area; these are compared with a former method are proposed for performing the indentation geometrical calibration of the contact area; these are compared with a former method proposed by Oliver and Pharr (OP). The present methods are based on: (i) analysis of the punch profile using atomic force microscopy (AFM); and (ii) a linear penetration-depth function correction (LM), based on knowledge of the values of the Young's modulus of several materials. By applying these methods to the indentation load/indentation depth results, it was possible to draw some conclusions about the benefit of the AFM and LM methods now under proposal.

Ultra-microhardness testing procedure with Vickers indenter

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Ultra-oleophobic cotton fabric prepared using molecular and nanoparticle vapor deposition methods.

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Ultra-rapid prediction of the durability of coatings for plastics using plasma erosion

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Degradation of coatings by plasma erosion, correlation with accelerated weathering and natural exposure are described. Technique is now applied to coatings on plastics substrates.

Ultra-short pulsed laser deposition of thin silver films for surface enhanced Raman scattering.

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SURF Nanostructured thin films have been obtained by ultra-short pulsed laser deposition (PLD) of silver performed in vacuum. The ablation source used in these experiments was a frequency doubled (? = 527 nm) Nd:glass laser with a pulse duration of 250 fs. The films have been characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The surface enhanced Raman scattering activity results, investigated by Raman scattering of rhodamine B adsorbed onto rough silver substrates, are strongly related to the effective surface area (ESA) of the silver surfaces. Surprisingly, silver films obtained by ultra-short PLD are very similar to those obtained by short PLD. With the aim of explaining this likeness, the dynamics of plasmas induced by short and ultra-short laser pulses have been studied by optical emission spectroscopy and fast imaging. Composition, velocity, excitation temperature and density of short and ultra-short plasmas are quite similar, showing that film properties are strongly related to the plasma features.

Ultra-smooth ceramic substrate for preparation of magnetic data storage

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Ultra-smooth diamond-like carbon coatings with high elasticity deposited at low temperature by direct ion beam deposition.

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Ultra-smooth electroless nickel coating

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Aluminium and/or copper ions are added to bath to achieve ultra low surface roughness.

Ultra-thick films for thermal management and current carrying in hybrid circuits

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Ultra-thick (2-5 mil) film of copper, silver or other conductor for use in spreading heat laterally along substrate, are prepared from metal powders of aver. particle size 1-3µm.

Ultra-thick thick films for thermal management and current carrying capabilities in hybrid circuits

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Device with improved lateral heat dissipation characteristics comprises alumina substrate supporting heat generating component; above solder layer; and ultra-thick (2-5 mil) film between solder layer and substrate whereby thickness of ultra-thick film promotes lateral heat dissipation.

Ultra-thick thick films for thermal management and current carrying capabilities in hybrid circuits

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Device with improved lateral heat dissipation characteristics comprises alumina substrate supporting heat generating component; above solder layer; and ultra-thick (2-5 mil) film between solder layer and substrate whereby thickness of ultra-thick film promotes lateral heat dissipation.

Ultra-thin & ultra-hard. Coating characterisation with laser acoustics

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Coating characteristics become harder to determine as thickness decreases. Surface acoustic waves (SAW) offer a means for this. Plots show laser acoustic wave signals from uncoated steel & that coated with 0.85µm titanium nitride. The physical principles are explained, incl. laser acoustic variant. Sketch & actual photo show this, with screen display of program LA wave. Some examples are discussed incl. CVD diamond coatings on machine cutting tools, edge coatings on gallium arsenide wafers after polishing to various depths. Plots show actual & calculated values, with elasticity modulus of coating & substrate also depicted.Graded coatings are also discussed. 12 refs

Ultra-Thin Aluminium Anodic Oxide Coatings

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Report on title coatings which can exhibit high chemical (corrosion) resistance & low electronic & ionic conductivity. Studies using a.c impedance spectroscopy are reported as are potentiostatic transients where log (i) vs. log(t) are shown. Studies on cathodic breakdown of the anodised film are shown. This and anodic growth are both ionic processes, electronic tunnelling occurs only below 2nm thickness. 7 refs

Ultra-thin aluminium oxide films deposited by plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition for corrosion protection.

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JES

Ultra-thin biocompatible permeation-resistant protective layer for implantable polymers

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Many medically implanted polymers and also implanted electrical or electronic devices, require protection from the surrounding environment, tissue and body fluids. Vacuum deposited polymer coatings such as PEEK using either PVD or magnetron sputtering can be used for this purpose. Their deposition and characterisation are discussed, in particular their permeability. A specially designed test cell for this is described. Elution and microplate test methods are illustrated. Table shows results of various coatings. Coating hardness, elasticity and fracture strength are tabulated as is gas permeability. 50 refs