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Washing steel bridges in cold weather

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Answers are provided to question When temps. drop < 0C, and power washing of bridge steel precedes blasting and painting, what may be done to reduce potential for icing ? .

Washing substrates

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Photomask or semiconductor substrates are washed using stream mixed from sulphuric acid & hydrogen peroxide; permitting heat generated by mixing to increase temp. of liquid and contacting substrate at higher temp.

Washing system

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Cleaning equipment incl. compressing means to compress and transfer soln medium, _1 jet pipe with 1 end connected to compressing means and other end open, suction pipes connected to jet pipe and chemical tanks with open end of suction pipe inserted into each chemical tank.

Washing, cleaning & blasting features

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Short notes show equipment for dry cleaning of camshafts. 48 second cycle time and 73 d(B)A noise level; small unit for bearing component cleaning. Blasting plant for diecastings has eight blast wheels continuously fed by wire mesh belt.

Washing, rinsing, drying

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Discursive treatment, considers separate stages, selection of the most appropriate process. Notes importance of fixturing during these processes. Photo shows air knife being used. No data. 4 refs

Wasser und Abwasser (Water and Effluents)

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Deals with treatment of water and effluents, including water recirculation, in the metal finishing industry. Emphasis is on recovery techniques including metal recovery. Sludge treatment and effluent treatment and recovery plant are considered.

Wasserbeschaffenheit - Bestimmung leichtfluessiger halogenierter Kohlenwasserstoffe - Gaschromatographische Verfahren (Water composition - determination of volatile halogenated hydrocarbons - gas chromatographic methods)

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Wasserbeschaffenheit - Bestimmung von Chrome(VI) - Spektrometrisches Verfahren mit 1,5-Diphenylcarbazid (Water composition - Determination of chromium (VI) - Spectrometric method with 1,5-diphenylcarbazide

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Waste & Effluent Management for Metal Finishers in Berlin & Brandenburg, Germany

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Report on types of effluent & solid waste in title areas & their amounts & technical measures to cope with legislation incl. static rinse tanks, ion exchange circuits, treatment of individual streams & comments on effluent treatment.

Waste & Effluent Minimisation by Surface Treatment with Aqueous Solutions

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Overall concept for zero discharge with lowest possible solid waste prod'n (sludges) thanks to recycling. Flow sheets are shown for electrodeposition, electroless dep'n, chromating and metal stripping with associated effluent & recycling loops. Use of external facilities for treatment & recycling of solid wastes is also considered. Control of pickling times by surface potential meas't is described.

Waste & Effluent Minimisation by Surface Treatment with Aqueous Solutions

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Companion to prev. paper (J Hasler) focusses on water balance in-house, zero discharge & use of evaporators to achieve this. Diagrams show alternative configurations.

Waste and raw materials in metal working

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Report on seminar, Technische Akademie Esslingen, including abstracts of - H.J. Seng (Landesanstalt fr Umweltschutz, Institut fr Wasser- und Abfallwirtschaft, Karlsruhe): Survey on the multitude of possible recycling applications in the metal working industry - organisation requirements for the practical application; S. Lohemeyer (Bosch-Siemens Hausgerte GmbH., Giengen a.d.B.): Dioxin problem in the metal working industry; H. W. Lieber (Technische Fachhochschule, Berlin): Electroplating and environment; H.W. Lieber: Process technology without harmful substances in electro-deposition of cadmium; E. Bhm (Fraunhofer-Institut fr System-technik und Inovationsforschung, Karlsruhe): Experiences with the substitution of cadmium in surface protection; W. Zyla (Richard Geiss oHG., Offingen): Basis for solvent recycling; S. Lohemeyer: Works experiences in the use of chlorinated hydrocarbons (CKW); W. Zyla: The design of recycling systems for solvents on a private basis; W. Zyla:Experiences and recommendations for economic and ecologically justified application of halogenated solvents; H. Socher (Daimler-Benz, Stuttgart): Possibilities and limitations in the avoidance of residual materials in a metal working factory.

Waste and residues from metal working - reuse, environmental damage

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Report on seminar, Technische Akademie Esslingen, 6-7.10.86.

Waste Avoidance & Minimisation at AT & S Printed Circuit Boards

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Case study of Austrian pcb manufacturer who did waste audit. Changes incl. aqueous alkaline resist. Process flowsheet is shown for effluent treatment. Histogram classifies nature & quantities of wastes. Pie charts summarises changes introduced during & after study & cost implications (amortised in less than 1 year etc). Table summarises changes & their benefits. Some cost datais given. 3 refs.

Waste control in the enamelling industry

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Enamelling industry wastes are discussed and legal aspects of disposal are summarized. It is concluded that normal disposal sites are adequate in most cases.