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XPS, ellipsometry & electrochemical studies on passivity of Alloy 800
Title stainless alloy was designed to be superior to 18-8 or Inconel in its resistance to stress corrosion cracking. Polarisation plots in sulphuric acid and sodium chloride sol'n are shown, before & after prefilming, XPS & impedance spectra. Table summarises ellipsometric data. Passive film formed in NaCl is mainly defective oxides & hydroxides of iron, which reaches greater thickness & passive current density than film formed in deaerated sulphuric acid which includes protective chromium oxides & magnetite & shows lower passive c.d. Prefilming is thus recommended. 22 refs
XPS, EPMA and microstructural analysis of a defective industrial plasma-nitrided steel.
XPS-AES study of the surface composition of GaSb single crystals irradiated with low energy Ar ions.
XRD analysis of zinc oxide thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis
Undoped and aluminium-doped ZnO thin films were prepared on glass substrates by spray pyrolysis. Variation in structural properties with variation in Zn acetate concn. in precursor soln., substrate temp., as well as doping concn., were investigated. Films were polycrystalline, with (002) orientation being pref. in most of films. Orientation of crystallites depends largely on deposition parameters. Post deposition annealing under various conditions had no large effect on structures.
XRD and FTIR analysis of Ti-Si-C-ON coatings for biomedical applications.
XRD and XPS study of aluminium thin films deposited by ion implantation.
Reports effects of Al nitride formation when nitrogen ion bombardment is used.
XRD and XPS study on reactive plasma sprayed titanium-titanium nitride coatings
Reactive plasma spraying of Ti in nitrogen-containing plasma gas allows formation of hard Ti composite coatings reinforced by in situ formed titanium nitride and Ti2N. Formation of Ti nitrides during reactive spraying of Ti was studied by: X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Diffusion and solidification sequence predicted by Ti-N phase diagram was consistent with experimental results. N retained in coating was mainly as Ti nitrides not interstitial N in Ti lattice. Formation and direct solidification of titanium nitride occurs during flight of sprayed particles. Presence of solid titanium nitride constrains thermal contraction of Ti splats on solidification. Cell distortion of residual alpha-Ti is thus attributed to tensile stresses arising from solidification process.
XRD microstructural study of zinc films deposited by unbalanced magnetron sputtering
Smooth relatively thick films can be prepared from low m.pt. materials by ion bombardment in unbalanced magnetron sputtering. Transition from Zn films with rough surfaces and milky appearances to shiny ones with smooth surface with increasing substrate bias is studied. Extremely strong (001) texture was found for smooth films. Max. of pref. orientation at substrate biases of c. 400 V corresponds to max. of Ar content and also to high XRD line broadening and low value of lattice parameter c perpendicular to surface.
XRF - Not Just for Thickness Testing
The use of XRF for sol'n analysis is described with disc'n of matrix effects and details of elements and conc'n limits that are analysable. 1 ref.
XRF analysis of coating systems: new features and limitations
Emphasis on software WinFTM and its assistance in resolving multiple coating parameters. Examples of problems and advice on good practice is given. 4 refs
XRF for film thickness measurement: pros & cons of common configurations
Benchtop vs. handheld instruments are discussed & other factors such as number of samples, size of sampling area etc.
XRF Measurement of Composition & Thickness of Electrodeposited Palladium Nickel Alloy
Very detailed report, includes basic principles of XRF, behaviour with Ni interlayers, effect of gold overplate & statistical effects (R charts). Accuracy & precision are surveyed, as is effect of beam size. 10 refs.
XRF Measurement of Gold Plating Thickness
Article comments on instrumentation, calibration, beam size selection, sample positioning and time effects.
XRF Programmable Thickness Measurement Instrumentation for Automated Testing of Small Parts & PCB's
Describes simultaneous thickness meas't on multilayers such as gold over nickel or tin-lead & its application to automated plating lines. Photos & sketches show equipment, computer screen displays.
XRF thickness measurements on plug connectors
Reports a round-robin test, the parameters of which are described, incl. calibration of a gold layer as part of gold/nickel/copper-zinc-tin (IOBC). 3D graphs show gold thickness distribution. Comments on calibration, relevance to standards, degree of uncertainty in the meas'ts. 7 refs