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179 results. per page « 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 »

X-Ray emission spectroscopy of sealing of anodised films on aluminium

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Sealing in boiling water or nickel acetate for up to 250 mins was followed in terms of aluminium & sulphur or Al & Ni signals. Results enabled a form of depth profile to be obtained, revealing an outer skin on the oxide. 3 refs

X-Ray Fluorescence unit

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Latest design from well-known mfr allows plating bath analysis in minutes, as well as better-known coating etc analysis

X-Ray fluorescence - Beneath the coating

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Authors are from well-known XRF instrument mfr and describe how technique can be used to analyse multilayer coatings and also substrate. Numerous examples incl.printed circuit boards and metallised plastics (ABS). Tables show actual examples and the limits of the method as coating thicknesses increase, are considered. 5 refs

X-Ray fluorescence - Beneath the coating

Relevancy:  

Authors are from well-known XRF instrument mfr and describe how technique can be used to analyse multilayer coatings and also substrate. Numerous examples incl.printed circuit boards and metallised plastics (ABS). Tables show actual examples and the limits of the method as coating thicknesses increase, are considered. 5 refs

X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis of Alloy Electroplated Coatings on Steel

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X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis of Coatings - a Review

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Theoretical review covers problems associated with coating density. 61 refs.

X-ray fluorescence analysis of gold coatings

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Sketch shows typical multilayer build-up where 2 gold alloy layers overlay a third, gold and copper and sometimes other metals being common to more than one layer. Effects of alloy composition & density are examined. Implications of assuming constant layer composition are noted. Comment on calibration, sensitivity to swings in composition, effects of substrate on the measurement. Substrates containing copper or silver can cause problems. Case studies review results on multilayer coatings. Some practical rules are offered. Comments on process solution analysis & that of massive alloys. 7 refs

X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis of Thickness of silicon Germanium Duplex Layer

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Title coatings were plasma sputtered onto "polykor" and XRF thickness det'n is described. 6 refs.

X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis of Tin Lead Coatings in Printed Circuit Boards

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Note focusses on ageing effect of metallic coating on XRF response. Graph shows changes in crystallite size from time = 0 to 3 weeks (very slight change) and 2 years (substantial change) and its effect on the Sn & Pb response lines. The importance of recognising this when calibrating with standards must be appreciated. 4 refs.

X-Ray Fluorescence Apparatus for Thickness & Composition Measurement

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X-ray fluorescence applications to art & cultural heritage: study of a Japanese print

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Results are given, with spectrum, allowing pigments used to be determined. 6 refs.

X-Ray Fluorescence for Chemical Analysis

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Note reminding that use of XRF for chemical analysis is much older established than for thickness meas't. Performance of a proprietary unit is invoked to show how accurate & reliable meas'ts can be. Use for both solution and solid metal analysis is briefly mentioned.

X-ray fluorescence for detection of heavy metal contamination in plastics

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XRF is a powerful analytical tool for the detection of heavy metals such as lead or cadmium whose presence in plastics, notably in plastic toys or household goods can be harmful. Maximum permitted concentrations are set by the Standard DIN EN 71. Table lists eight heavy metals, there are allowed maximum concentration and ex-RAF detection limits in plastics POM, PVC and ABS.

X-ray fluorescence for quality control of chromate coatings on hot dip galvanised steelwork

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Atomic Absorption provides only mean values for chromium concentrations & uniformity, in contrast to a point-by-point sampling option using XRD.

X-ray fluorescence for RoHS compliance

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Summarises EU RoHS health & safety legislation and shows how XRF can monitor for compliance. Notes which product categories fall within RoHS scope & illustrates method using elemental mapping (lead) of a complete printed circuit board, with XRF spectrum of multilayer chip or multilayer ceramic capacitor