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X-Ray Lithographic Photomask

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Title masks have Si support frame, substrate layer supported by said frame on which there is a thin layer of carbon. Electroformed patterns deposited are improved by having copper sub-layer with polyimide type spacers onto which gold is E/F.

X-Ray Measurement of Coating Thickness

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X-Ray Method to Determine Proportion of Epitaxial Zone in Electrodeposited Alloy Coatings

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SURF Using Cu-Cd alloy deposits, method was developed to determine proportions of 3 crystallite orientation zones; epitaxial, twin & randowm. 14 refs.

X-ray methods for analysis of phosphate coatings. Pt. 2. Phase composition of coatings obtained from domestic phosphating solutions

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Theoretical basis of determination of phase composition of phosphate coatings is discussed. Almost all coatings consists of phosphophyllite and hopeite, but proportions between these depend on operating conditions and drying.

X-ray methods for investigating phosphate coatings. Pt. 1: Composition of phosphate coatings produced in baths of own production

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Theoretical basis of phase composition of 7 Polish phosphate coatings and of processes are discussed. Almost all coatings contain combination of phosphophyllite and hopeite. Ratio depends on surface preparation, phosphating parameters and post-treatment. Type of phosphate soln. application method is also important.

X-ray methods of analysis for phosphate coatings

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X-ray microbeam transmission/fluorescence method for non-destructive characterization of tungsten coated carbon materials.

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X-ray microscopy for non-destructive examination of electronic components & packages

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Very detailed overview, with numerous examples, showing the uses (and limits) of title technique. Introduction lists 12 or more inspection techniques, some destructive, others not. Charts, diagrams & photos illustrate the scope and show numerous case studies. 8 refs.

X-Ray Opaque Aluminium Nitride or Silicide Coating

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X-ray photoelectron spectra and X-ray diffraction of the anodized films on aluminium formed in alkaline bath containing hydrogen peroxide

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Anodised films on Al formed in NaOH bath containing H2O2 were investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (ESCA) and X-ray diffraction. Electron binding energies between Al and O in anodised films formed at various electrolytic conditions were measured by ESCA. Metallic Al and Al(III) were observed in films which anodised for 3 s but Al(III) were only observed after anodised for additional few seconds in same anodising bath at 40V. Anodised films were formed to 30 by anodising for 7 s. Amount of O atoms due to hydroxide in films for 3 s anodising were increased and that of oxide were also increased by 7 s anodising. X-ray diffraction patterns showed that transition to a-Al2O3 occurred at c. 900°C by heating and its temp. was lower than that of H2SO4 anodised films. Hydrates of films were obtained at lower temp. than H2SO4 anodised films by hydrothermal treatment.

X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic studies of sprayed CdS films

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Chemical composition of sprayed CdS films has been evaluated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Stoichiometry of films was studied as function of pyrolysis temperature, Cd/S ratio in soln., deposition rate and film thickness. Definite correlation was observed between composition and process parameters. Sprayed films of CdS are useful in solar and other semiconductor-type cells.

X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic studies on passivation films on zinc plating coatings formed by trivalent chromium passivating agents.

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The corrosion resistance of passivation films on acid potassium chloride zinc plating coatings formed by three trivalent passivating agents was compared based on neutral salt spray (NSS) tests. The thickness and composition of the passivation films were studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The corrosion resistance of the passivation films formed by different passivating agents are in the following descending order, SpectraMATE*TM 25 > TRI-V121 > TRI-V120. The passivation film formed by SpectraMATE*TM 25 iridescent passivating agent can endure over 336 h in NSS test. The passivation films formed by TRI-V120 and TRI-V121 blue/white passivating agents are mainly composed of Cr2O3 and have a similar thickness of ca.200 nm. The passivation film formed by TRI-V121 contains more Cr than that formed by TRI-V120, and thus has higher corrosion resistance. The passivation film formed by SpectraMATE*TM 25 is composed of Cr2O3 and Cr(OH)3, and has a thickness of ca.800 nm, which contributes to its superior corrosion resistance.

X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) for everyone

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Note on title technique shows new "Amicus" instrument and typical results such as structure of titanium nitride deposited on silica-silicon substrate.

X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis of zirconium nitride-like films prepared on Si(100) substrates by ion beam assisted deposition.

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X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy characterization of titania films deposited by dynamic ion beam mixing

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SURF TiO2 films were prepared at room temp. by dynamic ion beam mixing where Ti was Ar+ sputter deposited on Fe substrates and bombarded with Ar or O ion beams at energy of 100 keV. C on surface of films exhibits different states for different bombarding ion species. Ar ion beam bombardment during film deposition induced carbonisation forming O-Ti-C bonding configuration, while O ion bombardment did not.