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179 results. per page « 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 »

X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy of Electroless Amorphous and Crystalline Nickel-Boron Coatings.

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X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy of Chemically Deposited Amorphous and Crystalline Nickel-Boron Coatings

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X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of chromium deposits from oxalate-sulphate electrolyte

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PROT Addition of oxalate to a trivalent Cr plating bath with sulphuric acid allows deposition of up to 100µm thick bright deposits, with 30 to 40% current efficiency. Using a dilute solution results in a deposit of crystalline structure, with more concentrated sol'm giving amorphous deposits. The two types of deposit differ in their physical and electrochemical (corrosion) properties. Experiments show that the high conc'n deposits are largely carbides, of composition Cr23C6, with metallic Cr incorporated in carbide clusters. From more dilute solutions, metallic deposits are formed.

X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy of Chromium Layers Electroplated from Oxalate-Sulfate Solutions

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X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of highly conducting and amorphous osmium dioxide thin films

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X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of highly conducting and amorphous osmium dioxide thin films

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X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of highly conducting and amorphous osmium dioxide thin films

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X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy of Nickel Coatings for Aircraft Applications

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Spectra are shown in which the various pretreatment & then Ni electroplating stages can be distinguished. The aim is to identify surface states to optimise deposit properties. 4 refs

X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies of a ferricyanide accelerated chromate paint pretreatment film on an aluminium surface

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Samples of 99.8 Al were pretreated for 30 s in ferricyanide accelerated chromate soln; chemical states of atoms present in surface layers were determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and results used to consider mechanism of ferricyanide accelerator.

X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies of copper diffusion behaviour and related degradation phenomena in thin film CdS: Cu2S solar cells

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Quantitative growth of thin Cu2S layers in chemiplated thin film CdS:Cu2S solar cells was observed by studying depth profile concns. of Cu and S by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Scanning electron microscopy examination of junction revealed complex and corrugated structure at interface. From study of spatial distributions of Cd, Cu and S and measurements of saturated [Cd]/[S] ratios it was inferred that in deep layers Cu originates from grain boundaries. Similarly, by isolating Cu profile in Cu2S layers, CdS grain-grain boundary region and CdS grain boundaries and by applying suitable diffusion equations with appropriate boundary conditions, diffusion coeffs. in midgrain and grain boundary regions were evaluated. In chemiplating process Cu diffusion is 5 x 10-*11 exp(0.229/kT) in midgrain and 1.06 exp(-0.964/kT) in grain boundary. Evaluated diffusion coeffs. were used to compute time in which loss of Cu2S stoichiometry and widening of Cu-compensated layer leads to significant reduction in cell performance. Study shows that Cu diffuusion is not severe life-limiting factor for CdS solar cells.

X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies of the role of etching in improving CdSe films for photoelectrochemical solar energy conversion

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X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy study of cadmium telluride oxide films grown by rf sputtering with an Ar-NH3 plasma

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SURF CdTe oxide films were prepared on glass substrates using the rf-sputtering technique and a controlled plasma of Ar-NH3. Films were studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The changes in chemical composition as a function of ammonia partial pressure during deposition indicate that oxygen incorporates in the films up to approximately 62 at. %, while the Cd and Te contents decrease from - 43 to 19 at. %. At NH3 partial pressure of 1.3 x 10-*2 Pa, the Te-Cd bonds are strongly reduced and the Te in the films is mainly bonded to oxygen. The Cd MNN X-ray Auger feature shows a shift a shift in energy of approximately 0.8 eV as a function of NH3 partial pressure. This shift appears to be related to the change in Cd bonding from Cd-Te to Cd-O. Films prepared at NH3 partial pressure of 4 x 10-*4 Pa present crystallinity with a [111] cubic CdTe orientation, while those prepared at high NH3 partial pressure show an amorphous structure. The amorphous material formed at NH3 partial pressure saturation appears to be mainly amorphous CdTeO3.

X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy study of CdTe oxide films grown by rf sputtering with an Ar-NH3 plasma

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SURF CdTe oxide films were prepared on glass substrates using the rf-sputtering technique and a controlled plasma of Ar-NH3. Films were studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The changes in chemical composition as a function of NH3 partial pressure during deposition indicate that oxygen incorporates in the films up to approximately 62 at. %, while the Cd and Te contents decrease from - 43 to 19 at. %. At NH3 partial pressure of 1.3 x 10-*2 Pa, the Te-Cd bonds are strongly reduced and the Te in the films is mainly bonded to oxygen. The Cd MNN X-ray Auger feature shows a shift a shift in energy of approximately 0.8 eV as a function of NH3 partial pressure. This shift appears to be related to the change in Cd bonding from Cd-Te to Cd-O. Films prepared at NH3 partial pressure of 4 x 10-*4 Pa present crystallinity with a [111] cubic CdTe orientation, while those prepared at high NH3 partial pressure show an amorphous structure. The amorphous material formed at NH3 partial pressure saturation appears to be mainly amorphous CdTeO3.

X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy study of phosphorus silicate glasses

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X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy study of phosphorus silicate glasses

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