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179 results. per page « 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 »

X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy with Al and Cr K alpha X-ray sources.

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X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and optical transmittance studies of indium tin oxide and cadmium sulphide thin films for solar cells

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InSn oxide (ITO) films were deposited onto borosilicate glass by d.c. sputtering from oxide target (91 mass % In2O3 and 9 wt % SnO2). CdS thin films suitable for solar cells were obtained by chemical bath deposition (CBD) from aq. solns. of Cd sulphate and thiourea followed by thermal annealing of layers deposited onto electroconductive glass. Chemical changes on surface of ITO and CdS layers are discussed.

X-Ray Production of Lacquer Coatings with Structures for Micro-Electroplating

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Nozzles for use in isotope separation are formed by X-ray patterning lacquer resist layers. Lacquer is supported on metal substrate having same coefficient of expansion as lacquer. Polymethyl methacrylate was used as lacquer. Metal such as copper or nickel is plated into the lacquer pattern at thickness of < 1um, pref. 0.1 um.

X-Ray Radiography-Densitometry Technique for Quantitative Determination of Metal Deposit Profiles

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JES Zinc is electrodeposited on and within a three-dimensional vitreous carbon foam cathode. Title methods are used to profile the depth away from solution interface where metal is deposited. 13 refs.

X-ray reflectivity analysis of thin titanium nitride and TiO(x)N(y) films deposited by dual-ion-beam sputtering on (100)Si substrates

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Presents X-ray reflectivity study of thin titanium nitride and TiO(x)N(y) films grown on Si(100) dual-ion-beam-sputtering technique. Thickness range is 25-35 nm. Demonstrates that low-angle X-ray reflectivity is powerful tool for studying early growth and properties of films. Oxidation of titanium nitride film surface occurs, yielding 2 nm thick TiO2 film, if films are exposed to air after growth. Interface layer 1.5 nm thick with electron density near SiO2 is present at substrate-film interface. Thickness of interface layer increases by > 3 times after 7-8 months (ageing). Formation of oxide layers is independent of growth mode. Formation of TiO2 surface layer is also observed for TiO(x)N(y) films. Samples synthesized by employing ion-beam assistance show much lower surface roughness (c. 0.8 nm) than samples deposited without ion-beam assistance (c. 1.5 nm). This demonstrates that films with improved structural and surface properties can be obtained using dual-ion-beam-sputtering.

X-ray reflectivity studies on DLC films deposited by microwave ECR CVD: Effect of substrate bias.

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X-Ray Residual Stress Analysis on Chromium Nitride/Cr/CrN Multilayer PVD Coatings Deposited on Different Steel Substrates

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X-Ray Residual Stress Determinations in Thin Chromium Coatings on Steel

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SFEM A method is shown by which the X-ray diffraction patterns due to stress in coatings can be separated from those in the substrate. Single and multiple coatings of chromium ca 24 um thick were used. The theory is expounded in full detail. 5 refs.

X-ray spectral investigation of alloy surfaces in grinding

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Feasibility of using X-ray emission spectroscopy for analysing possible interaction of C contained in diamond wheels with various materials in grinding is considered.

X-ray spectrosccopic studies on metal compounds used in electronic devices.

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X-ray stress measurement for titanium nitride films evaporated by PVD

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Residual stress of titanium nitride films, coated by PVD was measured by advanced X-ray stress measurement. Commonly used sin (2) method in residual stress measurement is hardly applicable for titanium nitride films with [111] fiber texture because method requires isotropy of specimen. To take into account pref. orientations, analysis in which weighted average around normal direction in X-ray diffraction planes was adopted for crystal distributions was proposed in Reuss model. Peaks with high intensity for crystal distribution were determined by orientation distribution function. Stresses in films with [111] pref. orientation could be determined by X-ray stress measurement.

X-ray Structure of Speculum Electrodeposits

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X-ray study of title deposits in terms of composition, orientation & structure, in relation to known intermetallics. Disc'n. pp. 125-135.

X-Ray Study of Anodic Oxide Growth of Barrier Films on Aluminium

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PROT ED patterns are shown in expt. to determine which ions diffuse preferentially through growing oxide film in Al anodising. Al ions are found to do so. 10 refs

X-ray study of cobalt-nickel and Co/Pt/Ni/Pt multilayers

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Magnetic multilayers consisting of repeated bilayers of Co and Ni or quadrilayers of Co, Pt, Ni and Pt were investigated. Ultra-thin Co/Ni multilayers deposited with dual electron beam evaporation grow with poor interface quality, partly caused by high interdiffusion of Co and Ni, partly by cumulative interface roughness. Low interface quality destroyed superlattice structure after few bilayers. Quality of superlattice in Co/Pt/Ni/Pt multilayers was substantially better, mainly due to lower mutual diffusion of Pt and Co, and Pt and Ni.

X-ray study of pulse anodising kinetics on aluminium

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PROT Hybrid lithographic printing plates incorporate a 200µm thick alumina (oxide) film. Trials were carried out to determine whether this could be formed in 4% oxalic acid using pulsed current. The properties of such thicker layers were studied using X-ray which revealed, among other, a decrease in porosity as film thickness increased.