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Zero waste technology in the surface treatment industry

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Report on a project under the LIFE scheme, in Valencia, Spain, where an in-house distillation unit is used to recover solvent from degreasing operations. Water used in paint spray booth is recycled after treatment using membrane filtration.

Zero Waste Vibratory Finishing

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Note on Messrs Roesler describes origins of sludge normally found in vibratory finishing & how their approach avoids its build-up.

Zero waste, zero exposure plating process control

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Suggests that modern environmental legislation places Finishers under far greater restrictions, and that processes must be much more tightly operated. Suggests that use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) can be used to create zero discharge processes. Abstr. only

Zero wastewater discharge?

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Includes discussion of electrolytic regeneration of plastics etches, Ni recovery from electroless Ni baths and/or rinse water and of electrodialysis.

Zero-discharge and low volume effluent discharge plants. Part 2

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Suggesting that classical physico-chemical effluent treatment methods cannot easily meet new discharge standards, membrane processes are proposed alternative. Three treatment sequences are shown as process flowsheets with evaporators & membrane separations, with electroflotation using soluble anodes to create flocculants. Costs for each approach are shown. Appendix shows self-cleaning heat-exchanger based on fluidised bed action.

Zero-discharge cleaning & phosphating

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Case study of US BR&F Spray who switched from 5-stage conveyorised to 2-stage batch cleaning & phosphating. Additional advantage is reduced bath maintenance, where multiple baths needing weekly titration are now replaced by a single pH test strip monitoring.

Zero-Discharge Electroplating - Two Years Experience

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Report after 2 years at Messrs Knipping, screw & fastener manufacturers suggests investment has paid-off. Smaller (zinc) and larger (general) recycling loops are sketched. Vacuum evaporator is shown (0.15 to 0.3 kWhr/litre). Electrolytic cyanide destruction & chromate reduction are used. Compressor evaporator reduces energy consumption for water recovery further still (0.05 kWhr/litre). Process flowsheets are shown, solid waste (new & old plants) listed. 2 refs

Zero-Discharge Electroplating with Minimum Equipment Requirements

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Argues that for small-to-medium plating shops, the cost of in-house effluent treatment may not be supportable. The alternative is discussed - low water use rinsing coupled with centralised effluent treatment station working with the local authority. Setting up a non-profit organisation for this is examined & process flow-sheets are shown.

Zero-discharge standard proposed for the paint industry

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Zero effluent discharge standard proposed by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and paint industry's adverse reaction, are discussed. Compliance is to be achieved by in-plant controls and contract hauling of non-recyclable wastes.

Zero-emission process for electroplating operations

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Addresses problem of chromic acid mist (a carcinogen). Propriet\ary process uses floating liquid layer over Cr electrolyte. Sketches show this and the quality of Cr deposits (adhesion, hardness) is reported. Histogram shows emission levels with & w/o the new method. 5 refs

Zero-emission recycling of electroless nickel plating solution.

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A new recycling electroless nickel plating system has been developed using nickel hypophosphite as the source of metallic ions and as a reducing agent. In the system, phosphite ions, which are deleterious for the plating process, are removed as the precipitate of calcium phosphite, which is filtered or decanted from the solution. During repetitive plating operations, we maintained the plating solution composition and pH as almost constant values. The quantitative change of the reaction products provides theoretical confirmation that the system can be characterized as a 'zero-emission-type recycling model'.

Zestron - Environmentally Friendly Alternative to Chlorofluorocarbons

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Discussion with Wack Co who manufacture semi-aqueous (emulsion) Zestron cleaner family for pcb's. Their use and recycling are described with photos.

Zestron printed circuit board test methods demonstration

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Report on meeting where Zestron demonstrated their test methods, incl. a range of spot tests. The Contaminometer tests only for soluble ionic (electrically conductive) contaminants but is not the same as SIR (Surface Insulation Resistance). Their Flux Test assesses flux residues using a colour reaction for carboxylic acids used in fluxes & solder pastes. The halogen test analyses for chlorides etc, using a colour change reaction, allowing the localised distribution to be gauged, while tin test reveals that metal. Detrimental effects of fingermarking (on corrosion etc) are also assessed. The thermal test (1 min at 250°C) gauges improperly cured resin while the copper test reveals any Cu not coated with nickel + gold. The resin test reveals surfaces not covered with resin. Dyne liquids test for surface cleanliness. A Moisture/humidity test gives white-to-blue colour change. The Coating Reliability test (water immersion) involves open-circuit potential measurement. General comments on corrosion and leakage & ionic migration currents. www.zestron.com

Zeta potential & codeposition of ptfe particles suspended in electroless nickel solution

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Effects on title codeposition process, of surfactant types & concentrations is reported. Zeta potential are plotted vs. concentration of such solvents. SEM's show codeposits. 11 refs

Zeta potential measurement of planar surfaces using rotating disk

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Equation relates zeta potential to streaming potential as it rotates in electrolyte. E (stream) depends on RPM to the power 1.5. Zeta potential can be calc'd from streaming pot'l